1995 – vol 1

Solul – resursa esentiala a dezvoltarii durabile

Corneliu Rauta, Stelian Carstea

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice “Gheorghe Ionescu-Sisesti” Bucuresti


Soil – essential resource of sustainable development



According to the documents of the United Nations, sustainable development means a commitment to using renewable resources and to avoiding the over-consumption of non-renewable resources. It means choosing products and production processes that have the least adverse impact on the environment. In all areas of public and private life, it means a commitment to conserving natural resources and protecting the ecological equilibrium.

The soil, like other environmental factors, permeates all aspects of development and has an impact on countries at all levels of sustainable development. Sustainable development and soils are not separate concepts, nor can be successfully addressed without reference to other. The soil is a main resource for sustainable development.

In Romania, soils are the most important natural resources. How well these resources are managed and protected has a significant impact on sustainable development and on society’s potential progress.

In the context of sustainable development, the society must confront the difficult challenges associated with protecting the long-term potential of its soil resources. Present social and economic needs must be satisfied in ways that do not undermine long-term soil availability, or the viability of the ecosystems on which we, and future generations, depend. The consequences of failing to pay adequate attention to soil destruction can be catastrophic. Most alarming is the fact that soil deterioriation can, in some cases, be irreversible. Practices that will do permanent damage to soil should be urgently identified  and halted. In this view, science and technology can play an important role. The link between the soil and sustainable development involves much more than sound exploitation of soil. Observing and protecting the soil according to the ecological equilibrium needs are a vital component not only of human sustainable development, but also of human survival. Public as well as private enterprises must be held accountable for the soil impact of their activities, and government must take the lead in formulating policies and pursuing development strategies that encourage environmentally sound soil management.

Policies that promote technological cooperation and the efficient use of soil resources can also help in finding solutions to develop sustainable agriculture which mainly means avoiding the soil deterioration, excessive use of harmful, energy-intensive chemicals and preserving biodiversity.

Briefly, the paper strongly emphasizes the vital role of soil quality in the society’s sustainable development, having in view that according to the sustainability, as a guiding principle of development, the sustainable utilization of soil is somewhat analogous to spending the interest while keeping the capital, which also is meeting the requirements of the ethical imperative, expressed in the belief that “we have not inherited the soil from our parents, we have borrowed it from our children”.

Keywords: soil, sustainable development, sustainable agriculture.


Solul si imbunatatirile funciare

N. Florea, V. Balaceanu, I. Munteanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Soil and land improvement



The correlation between soil and the works of land improvement is examined. The necessity of soil knowledge in relation with the land development derives from the fact that the land improvement works alter the environment conditions (including soil conditions) with the purpose of optimising of the plant growth conditions and implicitly of increase of the soil fertility potential. That is why the land improvement works cannot be conceived without a good knowledge of soil and soil cover in close correlation with the environmental factors, that is the natural ensemble that have to be modified. This soil knowledge assures in the same time an assessment of the soil forecast under the influence of the land improvement works and an envisaging of preventing measures.

From the table 1 one can see that in Romania large land areas need different improvement works.

The main role of the land amelioration works is the optimising of the environmental conditions and the assurance of the stability of these conditions on long term. This role cannot be obtained only by land improvement works (constructive side); it is necessary to assure also the functional side. For this purpose, the land improvement works have to be associated with agropedoameliorative works which improve the soil properties; the nonachievement of this works or the retardation of their execution (situation generated long time by the wrong understanding of the notion of execution in phases or stages) can result in the decrease of the expected ameliorative efficiency or even the degradation of soil cover (by “secondary” salinization, erosion etc.). In this direction it is useful the introduction of the pedological efficiency criterion for the improved territory by evaluation and comparison of the land production capacity before and after achievement of the complex land improvement works. But the problem of the efficiency of the land improvement works is more complicated; it is necessary to take into consideration also the social aspects of this land improvement works, as well as the ecological impact which is different depending on the category of the improvement works.

The works for erosion control have in general a positive effect, because they try to correct an unfavourable previous soil evolution.

The drainage works in the territories in which the water excess appears in the rainy years have to be conceived so that the soil function as water reservoir not be diminished in order to avoid an increase of the moisture deficit in the cycles of normal or dry years.

The implementation of irrigation works results in much more complex and various effects. Beside the compensation of the moisture deficit, the irrigation can generate a leaching of soluble components or of some colloids, an increase of the soil hidro-saline balance accompanied by the hazards of water excess formation, salinization, alkalization or erosion.

The pedological studies, made according to the present methodology are complex geoecological studies which render in a parametric and quantified way both data about soils and data concerning the environmental elements with implication in the vegetal production. In this way, the pedological studies provide for the projection a multitude of data necessary for the designing of the land improvement and soil amelioration works and for land management. Additionally, a series of technical parameters as drainability, erodability, hydrophisical indices etc., as well as various land classifications or land suitabilities are rendered on special maps which accompany the pedological report.

The pedological studies bring, therefore, important specifications concerning the necessity, the opportunity and feasability of the land improvements: also, the pedological data are essential for the improvement solution choice, for the works dimensioning, location and volume evaluation, as well as for the establishing of the necessary measures in order to prevent some possible degradation processes in the territories with land improvement works.

The pedological data are used also for the land framing in land capability classes according to the ecological and environmental principles, as well as for the establishing of the agropedological measures and of the land fertilization and land management conditions in order to assure a good ecological and economical efficiency during the period of the turning to account.

Finally, the main problems of ecological and economical direction of the land improvement are emphasized.

Keywords: soil, land improvement, land management.


Insusirile si regimurile fizice ale solurilor brun-roscate

A. Canarache

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Physical properties and regimes of reddish-brown soils



A synthesis of physical properties of 185 profiles of Reddish-Brown soils stored in a computer database is presented. The profiles are grouped in three groups based on geomorphology and parent material. Most Reddish Brown soils are loams – loamy clays, with a weakly differentiated textural profile, of relatively high compaction, with less favourable mechanical properties and moderately favourable moisture properties. Generally speaking, the soil physical properties of the Reddish-Brown soils are less favourable as we pass from the Eastern and Central Danube Plain where they are developed on loess or loess-like deposits, to the Western Danube plains with soil developed on sandy-clay deposits, and to soils developed on sandy deposits. The soil temperature is mesic, the hydrologic regime is percolative, and the soil moisture regime is udic or ustic.

Keywords: Physical characteristics, physical regimes, Reddish-Brown soil.



Influenta materialului parental asupra compozitiei mineralogice a argilei din unele molisoluri ale Romaniei

C. Craciun

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


The influence of the parent material on the mineralogical composition of the clay from some Romanian molisols



The paper is a comparative mineralogical study of clay fraction separated from surface horizon and parent material of a number of 56 soil profiles which belong to the three types of mollisols from Romania: chernozem (18 profiles), cambic chernozem (28), argillic chernozem (10).

The parent materials of the soils was conventionally considered the samples drown from the bottom of profiles.

The clay minerals identified in the clay fraction of these mollisols were illite, smectite (montmorillonite), kaolinite and rare interstratifications and 1,4 nm minerals (chlorite like minerals or vermiculite minerals).

The qualitative mineralogical composition of the investigated soils (at the colloidal level) is quite similar but from the quantitative point of view, between the three types of mollisols there are some differences which appear especially in the bottom part of the profile. Sometimes the quantitative differences appear just within the same soil profile.

In the most cases the illite/smectite ratio shows higher values in the top part of profile.

The mineralogical composition (average values) of the clay fraction from the three types of molisols indicated a tendency for argillic chernozem to have a higher content of the smectite minerals. The same mineralogical composition as a function of geographical zones in which the investigated profiles are located show a tendency of some regions to be individualized like mineralogical provinces. Thus South Dobrogea appears as a province in which the smectite is dominant mineral in the clay fraction while in Transilvania, the dominant mineral of the clay is illite.

In the paper are also presented some relationships between clay fraction content and the dominant clay minerals of this fraction (illite and smectite) in the parent material which is similar with those found in the surface horizon. These relations show that an increase of the clay content determines an increase of the smectite content of clay fraction. A possible explanation is the fact that an increase of the clay content determines appearance of a so-called “confined” environment which is more favourable for the smectite formation.

The direct relationship between smectite and illite content from the parent material and surface horizon pointed out the influence of the parent material on the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction from these soils and the role of mineralogical inheritance in the formation of the clay fraction.

Keywords: mollisols, clay minerals, clay mineralogy components of these molisols.


Indicatori ai capacitatii solurilor de tamponare pentru reactie

Z. Borlan, Daniela Stefanescu, Dobrita Nebunelea

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Indices of reaction buffering capacity of soils



In view of characterizing reaction buffering capacity of soils, four interrelated and mutually correlating indices have been proposed. Their formulas and functional definitions are as follows:

in which: SEB, Ah and CEC are sum of exchangeable bases, hydrolitical acidity and cation exchange capacity of the soils, respectively, while (H+) represent the proton activity in the soil solution. Regressions of delta pH values (=pH at a 95% base saturation degree minus pH at any other given base saturation status of soils) on I-RBCS to 4 values where used to calibrate the values of the later so to characterize and quantify RBCS. In has been also demonstrated that for 25 soils used in the study potassium, magnesium and calcium (“lime”) potentials are direct functions of I-RBCS.

Keywords: soil, reaction, buffer capacity.


Soil-plant-animal relationships in the Copsa Mica area polluted with heavy metals

R. Lacatusu*, C. Rauta*, N. Avram**,

N. Medrea**, Beatrice Kovacsovics*,

S. Carstea*, Ileana Ghelase*

*Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest, Bd. Marasti 61

**National Institute of Veterinary Medicine “Pasteur” Bucharest, Calea Giulesti 333



The heavy metals emitted in the atmosphere from the Copsa Mica Non-Ferrous Metallurgical Enterprises caused a high loading of soils with heavy metals, especially Pb, Cd and Zn. On an average, the content of soluble forms of these elements in pasture soils exceeds the maximum allowable limits up to 3.5 times for Cd, 10.5 for Pb and 3.8 for Zn. The grasses in these pastures have accumulated these elements by both passive physiological uptake and deposition of particles on leaves, reaching, for instance Pb contents up to 16.8 times higher than the normal contents in these grass species. Grazing of such grasses, including also some soil, damaged the health of animals, especially cattle and horses, in this area, being recorded numerous cases of saturnism and marasmus consecutive to toxico-defficient syndrome with high rate of mortality incidence.

Keywords: soil, heavy metal pollution, pasture, saturnism, cattle.


Unele notiuni definitorii si consideratii teoretice privind impactul apei de irigat cu solul

V. Blanaru

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Some concepts and theoretic considerations about irrigation water impact on the soil



In an attempt to point out some definitory notions related to the irrigation water impact on the soil, the author emphasized that it is a general effect issued after the built-up of land reclamation (irrigation) projects. Beside the positive effects, the land reclamation systems may have, by long irrigation action, also negative effects on soil evolution (when the ratio between environment and system is instable and negative).

Regardless of their positive or negative sense, the evolutive processes are considered (by means of time criteria) as diacrones or successives, as against to sincrones or simultaneous estates which may characterize, for a certain moment, the quality of the environment or system.

The paper points out also the necessity of a systemic approach of the whole problem and the fact that, till now, in ecology are not yet realised a good correlation between sincronic (cibernetic) point of view with the diacronic (evolutionistic) one. This is because land reclamation systems are not permanently stables and the behaviour of ecosystems must be explained only both by deterministic and by probabilistic laws.


1995 - vol. 2

Studiile pedologice – componenta importanta a cadastrului funciar

Stelian Carstea

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice “Gheorghe Ionescu-Sisesti” Bucuresti


Soil surveys – important component of cadastre



The cadastre – a public register showing the extent, value and ownership of the lands of a country as a basis for taxation – is a complex and permanent activity which, among others, must be supported by adequate soil surveys.

By its characteristics varying from place to place and presenting different crop suitability levels, the soil is one of the many attributes of land that can be used in assessing farmland for taxation and equalization, in appraising lands for loans, in guiding land buyers etc. For this reason, soil surveys, providing basic information in terms of soil qualities that can bear directly on land value for many different purposes, are an essential component part of cadastre.

In Romania, the requirement for soil surveys occured about over a century ago, but they were authorized in 1906, when the Geological Institute of Romania was founded, including a special department – the Agrogeological Section. At present, soil surveys at large scales cover about 12 million ha of agricultural land, including almost the whole arable area of the country.

Unfortunately, in the last 40 years, the cadastral activity in Romania was quite far from being an adequate activity. But, just now, the Romanian Parliament is going to approve a General Cadastre Law which, among others, stipulates for the need of information on soil quality provided by adequate soil survey and soil testing made every 10-15 years and every 4 years, respectively, as a fundamental information for the economic part of special cadastres.

Besides advocating the particular role of soil survey within the cadastral activity, the author emphasizes the existence of an authorized body of soil surveyers and scientists in Romania, able to carry out adequate soil surveys and interpret them according to the requirements of a modern cadastral institution.

Keywords: cadastre, soil, land, soil survey, soil testing, soil suitability, land capability, land assessing, land appraising, land taxation.


Corelarea solurilor Republicii Moldova cu solurile Romaniei

N. Florea*, Ecaterina Turcan**

*Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti

**Universitatea de Stat, Chisinau, R. Moldova


Correlation between soils of Moldova Republic and Romania




Although based on the same conception of the Russian naturalist school, founded by V. V. Dokuchaev, the soil classifications used in Moldova Republic and Romania have evolved in different ways, so that at present they distinguish oneself especially by the share of quantitative criteria used in the soil diagnosis, by soil terminology, by soil grouping way at high level and often by subdivision way of different soil genetical types.

The correlation of the soil classes, genetical types (great groups) and subtypes (subgroups) of Moldova Republic and Romania (tables 1, 2 and 3) is presented and discussed.

The most differences between the soil concepts of the two countries are found at the forest soils, although their denominations are the same (brown soil, grey soil), as well as at the redoximorphy affected soils for which the used names are different. In the case of chernozems, the differences appear at the soil subtypes level. For the other soil types, the differences appear at the soil subtypes level. For the other soil types, the differences are insignificant and in some cases even the terminology is the same (solonchak, solonetz, vertisol, rendzina, alluvial soil): however differences of terminology and sometimes of content are found at the level of their subtypes.

Keywords: soil classification, soil correlation, Romania.


Insusirile prismei drenante din balast dupa zece ani de la constructia amenajarii de desecare-drenaj de la Balotesti (S.A.I.)

P. Voicu, M. Mihalache, S. Chivulete, Corina Albu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Characteristics of ballast drain backfill ten years after building of the drainage project of Balotesti (S.A.I.)




In the drainage projects of Romania ballast backfill is used to increase soil permeability in the near proximity of tile drains.

The ballast initial high specific permeability decreases in time due to silting with fine particles carried by drained water.

This paper presents the main results of the determinations concerning the initial permeability (free of silting) and the permeability after ten years of activity of a drainage project.

The physical properties of the ballast backfill showed after ten years the same trends as compared to the backfill made of soil. As such the differences between the two backfills are distinct.

The chemical properties of the soil we are appreciably improved.

The ten years (1984-1994) had not a surplus rainfall regime and for this reason the research must be continued.

Keywords: soils amelioration, drainage project, drain backfill


Tehnologii de sporire a productiei, la cultura marului, prin fertilizare si amendare, pe luvisolurile zonei Caransebes

G. G. Bandu*, Maria Soare**, N. Vulpes*, Z. Borlan**

*Statiunea de Cercetare si Productie Pomicola, Caransebes

**Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Technologies of increasing apple fruit production through liming and fertilisation on luvic soils in the Caransebes (Caras-Severin county) area




A synthesis of data obtained in a 6-8 years old field experiments to establish the effect of liming, fertilisation, efficiency farmyard manure and of different mineral fertilizers as well as of supplementary stimulative foliar fertilisation, conducted in super-intensive apple orchards (cvr. Spur Golden Delicious/MM 106) in Caransebes (Caras-Severin County) on an Albic Luvisol, is being presented in the paper. All presented data are averages for 6-8 years of field testing work which is intended to be carried on further. A positive statistically significant correlation (r=0.69-0.96) of apple fruit production with the surface of trunk transversal section has been established for all lime and fertiliser treatments. Apple production increase due to liming was 2.56 t/ha year as a multiannual average, while FYM gave an average yield increase of 1.65 t/ha year, only when FYM was applied along three rows. Yield increases due to different rates and associations of chemical fertilizers ranged from 2.7 to 7.7 t/ha year, being directly related to water solubility of these. Deep incorporation of soluble fertilisers by means of MAS-60 machine have determined greatest yield increases, ranging from 7.9 to 12 t/ha year. Both liming and usual soil fertilisation and especially foliar fertilisation with soluble complex-foliar fertilisers have greatly diminished (from 60.4 to 12-14) the fruit-bearing periodicity coefficient of the trees.

Keywords: liming, fertilisation, apple trees, methods of applications, tree fruitbearing periodicity.


Cercetari privind dezvoltarea sistemului radicular al unor plante de cultura pe un sol saraturat in curs de ameliorare

I. Nitu*, Maria Dracea**

*Institutul de Cercetari pentru Irigatii, Drenaje si Inginerie Tehnologica, Baneasa-Giurgiu

**Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Researches concerning the development of root system of different plants cultivated on a saline soil in process of amelioration




The paper presents the root adaptation particularities for a wide range of field and medicinal plants: maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), soybean (Glycine max), rape (Brassica nigra), millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), feniculum (Foeniculum vulgare), silybum (Silybum marianum) and artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) cultivated on saline soils in course of their amelioration.

The transformations noticed in the architectural structure of the radicular system, specific to various cultures – top rooted or fascicular – refer to: the depth of penetration in the soil, changes in the direction of growth, uncommon thickenings and selective development of the mass of roots with absorbent function at depths much more reduced than the ones known in normal soils.

Keywords: root system, saline and alkali soils, humus, texture, soluble salts content


Metoda pentru evaluarea nivelului de incarcare si de poluare a solurilor cu metale grele

R. Lacatusu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Method for appraising the level of soil loading and pollution with heavy metals




The paper presents a method aiming at separation between the level of soil loading with heavy metals and the level of soil pollution with heavy metals, as well as the severity with which each measured element contributes to one or other condition.

According to this method, the level of soil loading with one or more heavy metals means any concentration of these chemical elements which is not immediately harmful to soil, plant or other components of the environment. On the other hand, the level of soil pollution with heavy metals means any concentration harmful to the environment components.

In order to separate the two levels, the method defines and proposes the determination of a loading/pollution index (l 1/p). This index represents the ratio between the content of one heavy metal, analytically measured in soil, and its reference loading value determined by computation, according to the Dutch system formulae (A value in the A B C series). Subunitary index values characterize the soil loading range and superunitary index values – the pollution range. Each range is ranked into intervals defining: very low (l 1/p<0.1), slight (0.1-0.25), moderate (0.26-0.50), severe (0.51-0.75) and very severe loading (0.75-1.00) and slight (1.1-2.0), moderate (2.1-4.0), severe (4.1-8.0), very severe (8.1-16.0) and excessive pollution (>16.0), respectively. Index values defining only the pollution range can be added up, obtaining, in this way, the value of global pollution with heavy metals, this value being interpreted according to the above mentioned intervals.

The loading/pollution index has been computed taking into account data obtained on soil samples from the Baia Mare polluted area, and the ranking of soil pollution classes has been established having also in view the polluting impact of the heavy metals on the habitus of vegetation, as well as the heavy metal plant content.

The loading/pollution index value can be schematically presented in a table or can be used for preparing the loading or pollution maps of a certain area by delineating the areas with different loading or pollution values.

Keywords: heavy metals, loading/pollution index, soil loading, soil pollution.


Fauna de artropode edafice bioindicatoare a poluarii solurilor agricole cu metale grele si fluor


N. Vasiliu*, Otilia Ivan*, M. Dumitru**

*Institute of Biological Research, Jassy

**Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest


Edaphic arthropods as bioindicators of agricultural soil pollution with heavy metals and fluorine




The study presents a comparative analysis of the size of some groups of edaphic arthropods (Acari and Collembola), as well as of the structure of Oribatid taxocoenosis from habitats subjected to pollution with heavy metals and fluorine as compared with the same groups of animals from similar habitats not affected by pollution. In the control habitats, the number of Acari and Collembola depends on soil management. In polluted habitats, some groups of mites disappear, while the remaining ones are drastically reduced. We came to consider that the Neotrichoppia (C.) confine species is a bioindicator for the soils of mountain grasslands excessively polluted with heavy metals, and the Ramusella (I.) insculptum, a bioindicator for the agricultural soils polluted with heavy metals and fluorine.

Keywords: pollution, edaphic arthropods, bioindicators, oribatid mites.


1996 – vol 1

Rolul organismelor in evolutia mineralelor din sol

C. Craciun

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie – Bucuresti


Role of living organisms on the evolution of the minerals in soils




This paper integrates the existing information concerning the role of living organic components (plants, animals and microorganisms) on the weathering, transformation and neoformation of the minerals in soils.

Organic acids released from living organisms accelerate the breakdown of minerals through acid dissolution. The nature of plants and microorganisms and environmental factos affect the nature and the relative amount of organic acids in soil solution.

The weathering of the minerals are influenced especially by the roots of plants. This type of weathering is discussed.

Microorganisms promote mineral weathering through adhesion, penetration, microdivision and dissolution. They have the ability to serve as the “organic matrix” to achieve characteristic processes leading to transformation and neoformation of minerals.

The implications of these aspects are evident in the formation of the organo mineral complexes and soil aggregates which have a tremendous impact on the soil fertility.

Keywords: weathering, mineral transformations, biomineralization.


Consideratii privind variabilitatea si distributia solurilor pe versantii naturali (aspecte metodologice)

I. Piciu, C. Grigoras, I. Mostoc

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie

Apreciations concerning the soil variability and distribution on the anthropically unmodified slopes (methodological aspects)



This paper presents the studies carried out to establish the soils variability on the non affected slopes by radical anthropic modifications and their distribution depending on the wide range of pedogenetical factors.

We have been studied an 18425 ha area (fig. 1) situated on the eastern side of  Drajna Hill included in the Buzau Subcarpathians.

Lithologically the Drajna Hill consists of marls in which sandstone and sandy layers appear.

Slope sketch (fig. 3) shows that ground’s angle inclination is mostly ranged between 10 and 35% and locally, there can be found greater slope inclinations.

The microrelief forms are determined by the erosion, transport and sedimentation processes, that have a different manifestation intensity on each one of the slope sectors.

Pedogenetical factors deeply involved in soil genesis and distribution are lithology, relief and human activity. Soil erosion is accelerated and diminuated by the relief with its inclination angle, its position within the slope and by the human activity.

Pedological map (fig. 5) shows the soil distribution within the territory.

The Phaeozems occupy the medium sector of the slope with 10-35% inclinations. Colluvisols and Humic-Gley Soils are encountered on the lower sector of the slope with 10-20% inclinations. On the upper sector with frequent inclination over 20-35%, eroded soils, regosols and lithosols are distributed.

For each one of the four sectors (A, B, C, D) of a slope the configuration of the soil cover is different, depending on the ratio between the denudation and pedogenesis processes.

As for the soil mapping, the soil scientists must take into account those mentioned sectors and their specific processes.

Cartographically, on the large scale maps (1/5000-1/1000) soil units may be homogenous till the level of species or variant of soil. On the smaller scale maps, cartographical maps may consist of associations or complexes of soils whose first terms are the predominant soils.

Keywords: soil variability, anthropic modifications, slope, pedological map.


Despre unele posibilitati neconventionale de sporire a utilizarii productive a nutrientilor din sol si din ingrasaminte in recolte

Z. Borlan, Dobrita Nebunelea

ICPA Bucuresti

D. Dornescu, Elena Istrati, C. Rusu

SCA Podul Iloaiei Iasi


Some unconventional possibilities of enhancing the productive use of soil and fertilizer phosphorus in increased yields



By a “productive use” in the paper is meant a nutrient uptake with a corresponding yield increase at the same or even diminished nutrient concentration in the plant dry matter. Making a highest possible productive use of the nutrients from all available sources (soil, air, natural and artificial fertilizers) is of permanent concern among Romanian agriculturalists. This is not only an economical ground but also because of the inverse relationship and close correlation which may be traced between nutrient productive use in crops and the risk of their dissipation within the environment and the spoilage of the latter.

As “unconventional” are considered those soil and plant applied measures and operations which usually are not yet envisaged by crop technologists for large scale crop production.

Theoretical considerations and some experimental support are given in the paper for colloid protonation in base saturated soils, supplementary, leaf applied, fertilisation, special foliar fertilisation to increase the nutrient content in seeds, especially in seeds of hybrid cultivars (maize and sunflower) and for complex seed protection and seedling physiological stimulation, all as unconventional possibilities to enhance the productive use of nutrients in increased crop yields.

Keywords: soil colloid protonation, leaf applied fertilisation, soil and fertilizer phosphorus (and other nutrients), recovery in yields, seedling physiological stimulation.


Modificari agrochimice prin fertilizare si amendare de lunga durata a solurilor luvice de la SCA Livada – Satu Mare

I. Boieru, P. Kurtinecz

Statiunea de Cercetari Agricole Livada

Al. Szentesi, Aniko Lorincz, Iulia Kallos

Oficiul de Pedologie si Agrochimie Satu Mare


Changes in chemical properties of luvic soil at Livada – Satu Mare as influenced by fertilisation and liming in long duration field experiments



Chemical soil testing data for the ploughed 0-25 cm soil layer are presented in the paper to make evident the agrochemical evolution of two soils – luvic Brown soil and Albic Luvisols under the influence of long duration liming and fertilization at the Livada – Satu Mare agricultural research station in a 32 years old field experiments.

Trough the systematic application of annual fertilisation and periodical liming from 1961 through 1994 basic soil chemical properties substantially improved.

The humus content increased 1,50-1,90 times, the degree of base saturation (V) by 60%, while the pH (H20) increased from 4-5 units to 6-8. correspondingly, the plant available N, P, K, Zn, B contents also increased, while the exchangeable aluminium content diminished to none.

As a result of these positive changes in the soil, maize and winter wheat yields increased due to liming and adequate fertilisation from 700-1000 kg/ha to 6-7000 kg/ha.

Keywords: liming, fertilisation, chemical properties, Luvisols


Fertilizarea foliara de protectie a componentelor mediului ambiant in zone cu restrictii de utilizare a ingrasamintelor

I. Gavriluta, Z. Borlan, Maria Soare

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti

L. Bireescu

Institutul de Cercetari Biologice, Iasi


Protective foliar fertilisation of agricultural crops in area with restrictions of fertilizers use



Researchers observed a significant increase of productive nutrients use from soil from experimental data obtained during 1991-1994 with foliar complex fertilizers and with aminoacid compositions applied on plants. This is reflected by the large apparent degrees of productive use of nutrients from foliar complex fertilizers and aminoacid compositions (ranging from hundreds to thousands). A higher productive use in crops of the nutrients from soil and from fertilizers applied into the plant-soil system are determining a diminuation of the dissipation risk of nutrients into environment and the degradation of the soil by chemical pollution (especially with nitrates). The application of these fertilisation methods and means for obtaining an ecologic protection of the environment assures the diminishing of the nutrients from soil. This diminuation is good for soil which previously was very intensively fertilized but for the soil poorly and slightly supplied with nutrients, an analitical control for plants and soil has to be carried out.

Keywords: complex foliar fertilizers, protective effect, environment.


Rezultate experimentale privind efectul aplicarii unor preparate complexe foliare la mar, prun si visin


Maria Soare, V. Catanescu, Z. Borlan

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti

G. G. Bandu

Statiunea de Cercetari si Productie Pomicola Caransebes


Experimental results regarding the effect of foliar fertilization on apple (Malus domestica, Borkh), plum (Prunus domestica) and sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris, Miller)



The paper presents experimental results on supplementary, stimulative foliar fertilization on apple (1992-1994), sour-cherry (1992-1994) and plum (1992-1994) orchards. The results revealed the effects of supplementary stimulative foliar fertilization on yields and fruit quality. Yield increases are: on apple 8-29% (Botosani), 12-45% (Caransebes), 17-57% (Maracineni), sour-cherry 23-42% (Caransebes) and plum 23-42% (Caransebes), 17-78% (Maracineni).

It was shown that supplementary stimulative foliar fertilization (SSFF) improved also the yield quality.

It was observed that SSFF diminish the negative consequences of climate excesses upon plants.

Keywords: orchards, apple, sour-cherry, plum, stimulative foliar fertilization, quality fruit, effects on fruit yields and quality.


Aspecte ale utilizarii resurselor de sol si apa marginale in desertul Negev: toleranta relativa si productia de biomasa a speciei Acacia saligna


S. L. Stefanescu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti

C. L. Wexler, J. E. Ephrath, P. R. Berliner

Institutul de Cercetare a Desertului « Iacob Blaunstein », Sede Boker, Israel


Aspects of marginal soils and water use in Negev desert : relative tolerance and biomass production of Acacia saligna



Dry lands of Negev Desert in which saline soils occur frequently are characterized by high potential evapotranspiration and low and erratic rainfall. But rainfall is used more efficiently with runoff irrigation. Even if runoff is associated with negative implications, it allows agricultural activities take place. Reported data indicated that runoff agriculture can increase agricultural productivity and supplemented by drip irrigation can stabilize biomass production. On the other hand even if in these dry lands there is usually a lack of accessible fresh water sources, shallow subsurface brackish water is not uncommon.

In the heart of Negev Desert in Israel, a field experiment is carried out at Runoff Agriculture Unit Experimental Site (Sede Boker campus) and intends to investigate the possibility of growing multipurpose fast growing trees (Acacia saligna) on saline – sodic soils with runoff water supplemented with brackish water.

The paper presents a part of this experiment with results of the first year of investigation concerning the ease of establishment of Acacia saligna on soils characterized by combined processes of salinization and alkalization and the rapidity of growth under different treatments of flooding, supplemental irrigation and water quality at a constant level of midday leaf water potential as following: simulated runoff, runoff supplemented with good water quality irrigation, runoff with brackish water irrigation, irrigation with good quality water and irrigation with brackish water.

Above ground biomass measurements (height and trunk diameter) of Acacia saligna showed a good tolerance to high concentrations of exchangeable sodium in soil and a slightly better rate of growth in the treatment runoff supplemented with brackish water irrigation.

Keywords: saline – sodic soil, runoff agriculture, brackish water, Acacia saligna


1996 – vol 2

Dezvoltarea durabila si mediul inconjurator

Stelian Carstea

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice “Gheorghe Ionescu-Sisesti” Bucuresti


Sustainable development and the environment



Sustainable development is a concept that has become increasingly significant since the World Commission on the Environment and Development was set up, 1983 and also since it has been recognised that, because of their great economic and political power, the development decisions of the industrialised nations will have a profound effect upon the ability all people to sustain human progress for generations to come. The environment does not exist as a sphere separated from human actions. On the contrary, environment and development are inseparable. For this reason, the decisions of the policy makers should be guided by the idea of sustainable development to assure that growing economies remain firmly attached to their ecological routes, and that these routes are protected and nurtured, enabling them to support growth over the long term. What is needed now is a new era of economic growth that is forceful and, at the same time, socially and environmentally sustainable. Therefore, the environment protection is inherent in the concept of sustainable development, as a focus on the sources of environmental problems rather than on the symptoms.


Probleme ale cunoasterii resurselor edafice si ecologice ale Romaniei in context european

D. Teaci

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice “Gheorghe Ionescu-Sisesti” Bucuresti


Aspects concerning the edaphical and ecological resources of Romania in European context



The paper is an attempt of delimitation and characterization of a number of 40 ecological macrozones for European continent. Of these, 29 belong to plain and hilly regions and 11 to mountain regions.

Romania covers 5 of these macrozones, which are different from the point of ecological conditions and production capacity.

Keywords: ecological zones, production capacity of land.


Compozitia mineralogica a argilei din solurile brune argiloiluviale ale Romaniei

C. Craciun

Institutul de Cercetare pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie


The mineralogical composition of the clay fraction from argillic brown soils of Romania



The mineralogical investigation by instrumental methods of analysis (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis) of the clay fraction from 22 profiles of argillic brown soils from Romania, made evident the presence of smectite, illite, kaolinite and sometimes interstratifications and lepidocrocite.

Between lower (B and C horizons) and upper (A and AB horizons) part of profiles, the quantitative mineralogical differences could be observed. The dominant minerals in the lower part of profile were smectite minerals, which showed a decreasing tendency to the upper part of profile. The illite minerals indicated an opposite tendency in their distribution on the profile.

The smectite content of the parent material (average value) showed an increasing tendency in order: argillic podzolic soil-podzolic brown soil-argillic brown soil. This order is in agreement with those which refer to increase of the frequency of the Ca and Mg-rich deposits in parent material.

The frequency of chloritization process decreased in the same order. In the case of investigated soils the chlorite-like minerals were not identified.

Keywords: argillic brown soils, smectite, clay minerals, mineralogy of clay fraction


Fertilizarea in cadrul unor sisteme de productie vegetala durabile: I. Fosforul


Z. Borlan, I. Gavriluta, Daniela Stefanescu, Dobrita Nebunelea


Fertilisation within sustainable crop production systems: I. Phosphorus



It is considered that sustainable agriculture as a whole should rely on stable (durable) crop production. In its turn the latter implies also, among many other things, a certain stability of soil agrochemical properties at adequate levels so to ensure the required nutrient supply power of the soil for sustained crop yields. Stabilisation of phosphorus supplying power of the soil is especially needed for sustained crop production. With this and the first note of the paper tackles the problem of establishing the proper rates of phosphate fertilizers according to two ways of thinking which could be envisaged so far namely:

-         economically optimal rates of P (DOE) which are thought to result in immediate maximisation of net income from P fertilizer use, extracted from crop yield regression on P rates from all available sources (giving rise to profit maximisation per hectare);

-         optimal rates for stabilisation of phosphate level in the soil and of crop yields (DOSAR), extracted from mobile phosphorus (PAL) regression on P fertilizer rates applied in long duration field experiments.

It is demonstrated that DOE rates of P do not compensate for P consumption in crops only in low P (PAL less than 25 ppm) soils, while DOSAR may compensate both for CP consumption in crops and for PAL decline in the soil due to entropical evolution.

Several other pertaining to P fertilisation aspects are being tackled in the paper.

Keywords: sustainable agriculture; mobile phosphorus


Compozitii lichide cu aminoacizi si ureide pentru fertilizarea si stimularea fiziologica a culturilor agricole

I. Eficienta agronomica si ecologica in cazul aplicarii pe plante in vegetatie la porumb

Anca Abrudan*, G. Bancu**,

D. Dornescu***, I. Tambota****,

I. Gavriluta*, Ligia Truica*****

L. Bireescu******, C-tin Rusu***

Elena Istrati***, Dobrita Nebunelea*, Z. Borlan*

*Institutul de Cercetari Pedologice si Agrochimice (ICPA) – Bucuresti

**SCPP Caransebes – Caras Severin

***SCA Podu Iloaiei – Iasi

****OSPA Timis – Timisoara

*****ICITID Baneasa-Giurgiu

******ICEBIOL – Iasi


Aminoacids and ureides containing liquid compositions for fertilisation and physiological stimulation of agricultural crops

I. Agronomical and ecological efficiency when applied on maize plants



Studies on unconventional means of influencing plant growth (concentrated liquid hydrolysates with aminoacids and ureids – CL-AAU), in view of increasing productive use of nutrients are presented. There are also presented some effects of CL-AAU in view of decreasing the nutrient dissapation and of chemical pollution risks within the environmental.

CL-AAU were applied on maize plants (2-3 treatments) and their effects were recorded.

These have disclosed statistically significant kernel yield increases with a correspondent increase of soil and fertilizer nutrient productive use in maize plant.

Keywords: foliar applied aminoacids and ureids; mineral nutrition of plants; soil and fertilizer nutrient recovery.


Observatii privind poluarea unor soluri irigate cu reziduuri de insecticide organoclorurate (HCH, DDT)

V. Blanaru, Maria Dracea,

Doina Plaxienco, Carmen Maritan


Observations on irrigated soil pollution with organo-chlorated insecticides wastes (HCH, DDT)



This paper presents the results obtained from research studies performed for several years on condition of the wastes of organo-chlorated insecticides (HCH, DDT) that exist in the soils of a few great irrigation systems within the area of the Romanian Plain. At the same time, we studied the degrees of pollution with wastes of HCH and DDT existing in waters for irrigation of the respective systems, coming from Danube and from the network of internal rivers (Olt, Arges, Siret).

The results obtained seem to indicate that the main factor for transport and accumulation of these wastes of organo-chlorated insecticides in soils under irrigation regime is represented by the waters of rivers permanently polluted with such noxious substances (Olt, Arges, etc.). Although the use for agricultural purposes of the HCH and DDT insecticides has been forbidden since 1985, the pollution processes of river waters with these substances continued. This was the consequence of the fact that chemical plants and enterprises from the chemical industry still produce HCH and DDT (mainly for exporting purposes) and release large quantities of wastes together with waste waters (incompletely filtered or not filtered at all) in the waters of rivers.

As a result of this fact, the soils of the irrigation systems within the Romanian Plain are still polluted with large quantities of insecticide wastes that exceed the maximum allowable limit of 0,1 ppm.

Keywords: soil pollution, HCH and DDT wastes in soil and irrigation water.



Proposal for an integrated expert system for land evaluation in Romania

V. Vlad

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry



The present land evaluation methodology (for 1:10,000 scale), its computer implementations and the available data sets for land evaluation in Romania are briefly presented. As a result of the analysis of these above, the general requirements for a new (computerized) land evaluation system in Romania – from the functional point of view (what the system must do) and operational point of view (how the system must function) are given. Finally, a general structure of the system is proposed. It is based on a new approach – an “integrated expert system” using “models base” – which permits integration of different land evaluation methods (models), different computer implementation technics and different data sets. General principles for computer implementation are also outlined.

Keywords: land evaluation methodology, expert systems, models base, integrated expert system for land evaluation, computer implementation.



1997 – vol 1

Agricultura durabila in Romania

C. Rauta

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice « Gheorghe Ionescu-Sisesti »


Sustainable agriculture in Romania



Sustainable agriculture requires an integrated approach of the science and art of management. This approach encompasses the whole farm, relying on the expertise of farmers, interdisciplinary teams of scientists, and specialists from public and private sector. Sustainable agriculture is an ideal, a goal whose pursuit requires a substantial change in the way we think about farming. The continuing research for a sustainable agriculture will never be easy, but the importance of that research will always overshadow the difficulties encountered along the way. Just for this reason, in order to face these imperative needs, the Academy of Agricultural and Forest Sciences “Gheorghe Ionescu-Sisesti”, the national scientific forum responsible for the agricultural research in Romania, is in a full process of reform, restructuring and defining its role within the concert of the decision-makers concerning the national agrariar policy and development of sustainable agriculture in Romania. From the general interest viewpoint, more than ever, the politicians in Romania should be deeply concerned in the imminent transition to sustainable agriculture, and the costs needed for implementing the sustainable agriculture, and the costs needed for implementing  the sustainable agriculture in Romania should be considered as an investment aiming at ensuring the country’s food security and social stability.

Keywords: Romania, sustainable agriculture, agrarian policy.



Relatii intre scurgeri de suprafata, eroziune si productia cerealiera, pe terenurile in panta, din cadrul judetului Caras-Severin

G. G. Bandu, C. Marinca

Statiunea de Cercetare si Productie Pomicola Caransebes

M. Mihalache, A. Vatau

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Relation between the surface runoff, the erosion and the cereals yield, on ground in slope from Caras-Severin district



This treatise presents a synthesis of 5 years scientific research of erosion potential of agricultural grounds of Caras-Severin district.

Between the rainfall quantity in 24 h, the slope of ground, granulometric composition of soils and harvests levels of different cultures plants are established (stabilized) straights connections of correlations.

Maths correlations is between r = -0,25-0,91, being in all cases statistic assured.

Keywords: erosion, erosion potential, rainfall quantity, correlations, harvests levels



Cercetari privind aprecierea nivelului agrochimic al solului si corelarea lui cu nivelul biologic


Georgeta Oprea, Gheorghe Stefanic, Gheorghe Zambila

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Cereale si Plante Tehnice Fundulea



Soil samples from arable layer of 5 long-term agricultural experiments were analysed for : humus (Ct%), total nitrogent (Nt%), humic acid carbon (Cah%) and extractible nitrogen (EN%), extractible humic acid (Eah%), organic phosphorus (P-ppm), soil chemical reaction (pH-H20) and base saturation status (V%). The soil samples were collected from different soil types: irrigated and unirrigated cambic chernozems, irrigated calcaro-calcic chernozem, chromic luvisoil and albic luvisoil, from 3 experimental variants: V1 – unfertilized and unlimed; V2 – annually fertilized with ammonium nitrate and superphosphate, in the best doses and lime 12t/ha/10years, along of 30 years, in the case of the albic luvisoil; V3 – half fermented farmyard manure (20-40t/ha at each 4 years) and ammonium nitrate and superphosphate, annually, in the best doses and lime 10t/ha/10years, along of 30 years, in the case of the albic luvisoil.

The analytical data were processed for ranging the variants percentually against the best variant from each test separately. Then, by the method of numeric taxonomy was calculated chemical synthetic indicator, proposed by the authors.

Keywords: soil fertility, soil fertilization, soil fertility quantification.


Niveluri de continut ale fosfatilor mobili in stratul arat al solurilor pentru productii vegetale durabile


Z. Borlan, I. Gavriluta, Daniela Stefanescu, Dobrita Nebunelea

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Agrochimie si Pedologie, Bucuresti


Mobile Phosphorus content in soils for sustained crop production



Dealing with P requirements of crops for durable (sustainable) productions the paper advocates that phosphorus supplying power of the soil, as reflected by quantity (Q≈PAL) and intensity (I≈P-CaCl2 0,01 M) relationships should increase in pace with yielding level of crops. This was thought appropriate due to positive correlations between P diffusion in the soil, P uptake in plants and P mobility in the soil as reflected by I/Q ratio. Starting from crop yield regressions on chemical soil testing (PAL) data and on P fertilizer rates applied in long duration field experiments authors have proposed algorithms to estimate the need of efficient phosphorus (Ps, kg P2O5/ha) from all available sources (soil, organics and factory-made fertilizers) and also the levels of mobile P (PAL, ppm P) in the soil to meet the requirements of crops for 0,9 and 0,95 parts of yield expectancy under the conditions of sustained (durable) production. These algorithms are as follows (for 0,9 parts of crop yield expectancy):

Where Cf is phosphorus action coefficient variable with Rs; (Cf = a+(b/Rs); A is a maximal possible value of Ps; a, b and d are proportionality factors while Rs is expected level of the sustained yield. To illustrate the application of the proposed algorithms, examples are given for wheat, barley and maize but such algorithms may be extracted for all important field crops from existing regressions.

Keywords: sustainable production, mobile phosphorus, phosphorus action coefficient.


Materialele parentale ale solurilor din Dobrogea de Nord

I. Munteanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie


Parent materials of soils from the Northern Dobrudja



The parent material of the soils of the Northern Dobrudja is represented mainly (≈79%) by loamy aeolian loess of wurmian age, and loesslike deposits – (aeolian loess subsequently water transported and redeposited on slopes of the residual prequaternary landforms and enriched in coarse fragments). The thickness of loess mantle varies form 10-25 m on the lower and less dissected areas, down to 1,5-3,0 m on the higher and or strongly dissected areas parts of the relief. The calcium carbonate content is of 7 to 35%. The other quaternary soil parent materials (sands, alluvia) have a minor participation (less than 4%). The soil parent materials originating by weathering of the prequaternary rocks are less widespread (17%) and from thin layers (<0,5m) of coarse material overlying bedrock. They consist mostly of weathering products of magmatic and metamorphic rocks (≈4%), sandstones (≈3%) and limestones (≈8%).

Keywords: soil parent material, loess, loess like deposits, prequaternary rocks, Northern Dobrudja.


Distributia cantitativa a solurilor in principalele unitati de relief din Romania

N. Florea, Georgeta Untaru,

Rodica Vespremeanu, D. Motelica

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Quantitative soil distribution in the main geomorphic units of Romania



The quantitative data on the soil distribution at the scale of the whole country and main geomorphic units of Romania are presented for the first time (table 1, fig. 1-4); these data complete the previous information about Romania’s soil geography.

In the same time, the values of the different coefficients, presented in the tables 2-4, reveal the homogenity degree of the soil cover concerning: the nature of the component soils (table 2), association degree of some soil pairs in the Romania’s geomorphic units (table 3) and the similitude of different geomorphic units from the soil cover composition point of view (table 4). The mountain unit and flood-plain and delta units are very strongly differentiated geomorphic units from each other and also these ones are differentiated from each one of Romania’s geomorphic units.

Keywords: soil distribution, main geomorphic units, Romania.


Harti pedogeochimice ale Campiei Banato-Crisane


R. Lacatusu*, C. Rauta*

I. Rasnoveanu*, Mihaela Lungu*,

Beatrice Kovacsovics*

Gh. Ianos**, D. Tarau**

*Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti

**Oficiul de Studii Pedologice si Agrochimice Timisoara


Pedogeochemical maps of Banato-Crisana Plain



The presented maps (figures 1-9) reflect the heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) abundance in the Banato-Crisana Plain soils. The maps were executed at a 1:1 000 000 scale proceeding from the balanced average values of the chemical elements total content determined in the pedogenetic horizons placed up to 100-120 cm depth. For each soil profile a balanced average value was calculated for each chemical element. The legend of the maps contains frequency histograms, distribution interval classes, and statistical data referring to average values (arithmetic mean = X, module = Mo and median = Me) and to standard deviation (σ) and coefficient of variation (CV) values. The geochemical threshold (PG) value separates the background field of the anomalous one. The regional geochemical abundance index values (IAGR) and those of the regional pedogeochemical abundance index (IAPgR) mark out the chemical elements analysed from the Banato-Crisana Plain soils abundance comparatively to the litospherical and pedospherical abundance respectively. Separately by geomorphologic subunits an enrichment in Cd, Cr and Cu and an impoverishment in Zn and even Pb of the soils from the southern part of the Banato-Crisana Plain (Campia Banatului) was discovered, as compared with the soils in the central and northern parts of the Banato-Crisana Plain (Campia Crisului and Campia Somesului) (table 1). Excepting the psamosol, from the soil types, and Cd from the analysed chemical elements, significant differences between average contents of the main soil types and classes which form the soil cover of the Banato-Crisana Plain (table 2) did not outline in this stage of the investigation. Also, nor the nature neither the age of the parent material on which soil evolved succeeds in differentiating average contents of analysed chemical elements (table 3).

Keywords: heavy metals, abundance, maps.


Levigarea nitratilor intr-un sol glei argilos cu apa freatica la mica adancime, din albia majora a Dunarii

Cr. Paltineanu and Elena Florea

Research and Engineering Institute for Irrigation and Drainage

8384 Baneasa-Giurgiu


Nitrate leaching within a bare heavy-clay soil to shallow groundwater in the Romanian Danube Delta Floodplain



A two-factor experiment on soil microplots was carried out in order to emphasize the specific way of nitrate solution leaching within a heavy-clay soil to the shallow groundwater. Data obtained here indicated the risk of polluting the groundwater with nitrate when large amounts of N fertilizer and irrigation water were used, especially due to the preferential flow.


Unele consideratii privind monitoringul solurilor din complexul de irigatii Carasu – sub sistemul 23 August judetul Constanta

N. Andreiasi, Maria Dracea,

V. Blanaru

ICPA Bucuresti

M. Leca

SC Pomicola Valu Traian – Crucea, judetul Constanta


Some considerations regarding soil monitoring system from the Carasu irrigation complex – 23 August subsystem, Constanta district



Within the soil quality monitoring system from the land improvement operations carried out by R.I.S.S.A., in 1995 a control stage was introduced for the irrigation complex of Carasu, 23 August subsystem, Constanta district. The major interest was represented by the state of degraded soils, either by natural causes (hard rocks situated at small depth or at surface, surface and deep erosion, salinity), or by anthropic causes (as a result of irrigation with waste waters for approximately 25 years, in the Tuzla areas).

The authors observed that degraded lands are situated mainly on slopes, the most susceptible to erosion processes being the slopes with loess substratum.

Soils situated on hard rocks have a limited productive capacity because of the small edaphic volume of their profiles.

On the previously irrigated area with waste waters from Tuzla, the actual situation must not be ignored as long as there are some remaining salinization and/or alkalisation processes taking place in soil.

Keywords: irrigated soils, monitoring system, land degradation.


1997 – vol 2

Cercetarea interdisciplinara – un intreg cu efect mai mare decat suma efectelor partilor lui componente

Stelian Carstea

Secretar Stiintific Sectia Stiinta Solului, Imbunatatiri Funciare si Protectia Mediului in Agricultura

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice Bucuresti


Interdisciplinary research – a whole with better effects than its components



The paper advocates the essential role of the interdisciplinary research especially in undertaking the major problems of national and international interest such as soil pollution, breeding new hybrids, global injurious phenomena etc. The authors emphasizes the advantages and benefits of working in an interdisciplinary research team, such as the possibilities to have a more comprehensive approach of issues, to directly change the opinions with other researchers specialized in various disciplines, to find out better and cheaper solutions, to avoid the overlapping etc. Resources and their efficient use can be increased by team working. At the same time, the financial support by budget and different donors is much more easily got when the research work involves interdisciplinary approach.

To illustrate this statement, the author presents a particular interdisciplinary research, recently initiated by the Soil Science, Land Reclamation and Environmental Protection in Agriculture Section of the Academy for Agricultural and Forest Sciences in Romania, on “Prevention and Control of Drought Phenomenon”. Within the National Programme of Scientifical Research and Technological Development “HORIZON 2000”, this item is ranked at the level of a research subprogramme of the research programme – “Protection, Conservation, Reconstruction and Management of Natural Resources (climate, water, soil) according to the needs of Sustainable Agriculture”, included in the Thematic Direction “Agriculture, Forestry and Food”. Thus, in 1996, the interdisciplinary research activities within this subprogramme covered six research objectives including over 20 themes undertaken by a large number of researchers working in 12 institutions of scientifical research and technological development. It is expected to get a series of main products, such as geographic information system, integrated monitoring system, agricultural system, crop and soil management systems under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, a monograph of drought in Romania etc., all these in view to finally get the most efficient measures and procedures to mitigate and even control the injurious effects of drought.

The experience got so far from this experiment particularly emphasizes the necessity to improve the research management in this type of interdisciplinary research, and, first of all, to provide such a research, activity with a coordination board including a project director and 3-4 members of the board staff representing the main institutions participating in carrying out the interdisciplinary research and development project.

Keywords: interdisciplinary research, geographic system, integrating monitoring system, drought mitigation and/or control.


Orientari cu privire la evaluarea efectelor produse de eroziunea solului, baza pentru stabilirea masurilor si lucrarilor de combatere a acesteia


M. Motoc, Anca Tuhai

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice « Gheorghe Ionescu-Sisesti »


Aspects concerning appraisal of soil erosion control, measures and works effects



Sustainable rural development in roling, hills, mountain areas has depended on solving of soil erosion prevention and control issues.

The concept of sustainable development takes into account three components: economical, environomental and socio-cultural. The Soil Conservation Strategy approach this issues in soil erosion areas.

The evaluation of economical effects approach are made from the following points of view: evaluation of immediate effects; evaluation of long term effects; gully erosion; slides.

Socio-cultural aspects are also very important and it is necessary to determine the threat of erosion on public health, rural occupation and economy.

Keywords: sheet erosion, gully erosion, landscape, landslide.


Drenajul apei si al solutiei de nitrati din parcele izolate hidrologic ca efect al consumului diferit de apa al culturilor in soluri argiloase din Anglia


Cr. Paltineanu*, K. R. Howse**,

J. A. Catt si G. L. Harris***

*Institutul de Cercetare si Productie pentru Pomicultura, 0312 Pitesti-Maracineni, Romania

**Soil Science Department, IACR Rothamstead, Harpenden, Herts AL 52JQ, UK

***ADAS Anstey, Maris Lane, Trumpington, Cambridge CB2LF, UK


Drainflow and nitrate solute losses from hydrologically isolated plots due to various crop water consumes in some heavy-clay soils in England



This paper deals with the influence of the soil water deficit on the onset of drainage as well as on the drained water volume and nitrate leaching losses during the following winter season in the heavy-clay soils in Brimstone, England. Investigations were performed during seven years within hydrologically-isolated field plots provided with an automatic sample collecting system. It was found that larger soil water deficit delayed the onset of soil drainage in the following winter, but had very little overall influence on amounts of total drainflow or total nitrate loss by leaching over the winter. Results for individual years often showed stronger relationships between soil water deficit at harvest and nitrate loss. Influence of different cropping patterns, cultivation and drainage treatments on nitrate leaching are more important than the effects of antecedent soil water status. Comparison of the total nitrate losses over the period investigated for different cropping sequences suggested that the solution most likely to minimize nitrate leaching losses within a productive system is continuous growth of winter cereals with incorporation of straw by deep moldboard plowing.


Influenta remanenta a sistemelor de intretinere a solului asupra proprietatilor acestuia si comportarii pomilor

M. Iancu*, S. Chivulete**, Mariana Negoita*, N. Tanasescu*

*Institutul de Cercetare si Productie pentru Pomicultura, 0312 Pitesti Maracineni

**Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Residual effect of soil maintenance systems on soil properties and fruit tree growth



14 years (1976-1990) management with grass strips between tree rows induced as compared with fallow management between tree rows (control), for 0-40 cm soil depth a decrease of bulk density with 0.045 g/cm3, an increase of the total porosity with 30%, an increase of the macroporosity with 11%, a 4-5 time increase of hydraulic conductivity, and a 5% increase of the soil resistance to penetration.

After 4 years from the 50 cm deep tillage of the 14 years grass strips management treatment, for 0-60 cm soil depth the bulk density decreased with 0.035g/cm3, the soil resistance to penetration decrease with 15%, the soil structure stability decreased with 25%, the total porosity increased with 3.4%, the macroporosity increased with 5%, the saturated hydraulic conductivity increased with 17%, and the total amount of infiltration water increased with 29% as compared with control.

For the years 2-4 after the deep tillage of the grass strips between the tree rows the tree diameter increased with 27% related to the control treatment. In the fourth year after the deep tillage, the tree yield was two times as in the control treatment.

Keywords: clean cultivation, grass strips, bulk density, total porosity, hydrostability, tree field.


Mostenirea mineralogica si proprietatile solului

Gh. Gata

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


The mineralogical inheritance and soil properties



The mineralogical inheritance namely minerals, texture, chemical composition and cation exchange capacity were investigated. A diagram of the mineral repartition as a function of size in parent materials and soils were established. In the same time graphs of about kalium content in mica structure-crystallinity index and soluble copper-total copper were presented for emphasized the influence of mineralogical inheritance.

Due to inherited minerals with different sizes and alteration levels, the parent materials also transferred to the soils a determined solubility and retention of the soluble elements to the soil.


Compozitii lichide cu aminoacizi si ureide pentru fertilizarea si stimularea fiziologica a culturilor agricole

II. Eficienta agronomica si ecologica in cazul aplicarii pe semintele de porumb


Anca Abrudan*, G. Bandu**, D. Dornescu***, C. Rusu***, I. Gavriluta*

Elena Istrati***, I. Timbota****, Ligia Truica*****, L. Bireescu******,

Dobrita Nebunelea*, Z. Borlan*

*Institutul de Cercetari Pedologice si Agrochimice (ICPA) – Bucuresti

**SCPP Caransebes – Caras Severin

***SCA Podu Iloaie – Iasi

****OSPA Timis – Timisoara

*****ICITID Baneasa – Giurgiu

******ICE-BIOL Iasi


Aminoacids and ureids – containing liquid compositions for fertilization and physiological stimulation of agricultural crops

II. Agronomical and ecological efficiency when applied on maize seeds



Studies on unconventional means of influencing plant growth, in view of increasing productive use of nutrients in crop yields, decreasing the nutrient dissipation and chemical pollution risks within the environmental are presented.

Such means, consisting in liquid compositions with aminoacids and ureids (CLAAU) were tested on maize seeds in accurate field experiments.

These have disclosed statistically significant kernel yield increases with a correspondent upgrading of soil and fertilizer nutrient productive use in maize plant.

Keywords: seed applied aminoacids and ureides; mineral nutrition of plants; soil and fertilizer nutrient recovery.


Oekosystemare Wirkungen der K-/Mg-Duengung bei Ackeraufforstungen – Ergebnisse Langjaehriger Versuch –


Eberhard Uebel

Kali und Salz Kassel, Fachgebiet Forstwirtschaft


Ecosystemic effects of the fertilization with K and Mg at the afforestation of agricultural lands results of many year experiments



The results of many years experiments for fertilization of pine at the afforestation of agricultural lands in the plain of the North-East part of Germany show us the necessity of fertilization with K and Mg on sandy soils, with low capacity of absorbtion, poor in organic matter. The fertilization with K and Mg done in young stadium of pine proved to be efficient and significant in a forest stand of pine of 60 year old. The improvement of total growth of wood was up to 129 mc/ha, respectively 26%, and shows an important effect of fertilization with K and Mg. In another older experiments the effect was even bigger and reached an increment till to 93%.

The fertilization with K and Mg insures on light sites an optimal nutrition of plants with K and Mg and is a background condition for future increments of good growth and a healthy development of the forest. In the conditions of the degradation of these sites used in agriculture, the fertilization with K and Mg leads us to a better use of the N stock of soil in nutrient turnover and assures so a good nutrition of foreststand with N. By the danger of eutrophization of the site caused by the loss of atmogenic N the fertilization with K and Mg acts against the loss of cations of the soils and assures the equilibrium of nutrients.

The fertilization with K and Mg is an important measure for the success of turning into forest of the sites which were used as agricultural land. So the fertilization with K and Mg improves the growth in height of beech and pine with 31% and decreases the damages caused to the plants by frost and drought.

The fertilization with K and Mg supplies biogenic tied N and helps to the turning of atmogenic N into an increased biomass production. So it is avoid the loss of N in ground water.

By its multiple use and comprehensive actions the fertilization with K and Mg causes important gains of time in the dangerous process of increase of entrophication with N and of the damages caused by this process upon our forests. The available space for afforestation measures and fertilization with K and Mg is however very limited and cannot compensate the rapid transformation of the measures needed for decreasing the losses of N.


Baza de date a profilelor de sol (profisol) – structura si functiuni –

V. Vlad, Ecaterina Tarhoaca, Daniela Popa, Valeria Albu

R. Iancu, M. Baluta, Mariana Tapalaga

A. Canarache, I. Munteanu, N. Florea, Anisoara Rasnoveanu, Lucia Vlad, M. Nache

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


The database of soil profiles (profisol) – structure and functions –



The paper presents the structure and the functions provided by the database of soil profiles (PROFISOL) developed at the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (ICPA) during last 10 years. The database is available in two complementary variants: one on minicomputer (DEC PDP-11 compatible, under RSX-11M operating system, using F77 programs) and the other on PC (under MS-DOS, using Paradox 3.5 software). A complete list of data stored into the database is given (general data, land conditions, morphological data, analytical physical and chemical data). The groundwater and maximum 10 soil (sub)horizons can be considered. The data acquisition and the functions provided by the minicomputer variant are briefly presented (data entry, validation, display, modification, obtaining new derived data, obtaining average data on specific depths, calculating and estimating (pedotransfer functions) missing entry data, statistical processing on groups of profiles, data transformation and obtaining user reports). The PC variant of database is used for data retrieval/selection and processing (using Paradox facilities). The procedure for data conversion from the minicomputer variant into the PC variant is briefly described. Some aspects of software development, present stage of data loading, possibilities of future developments and some concluding remarks are also presented.

Keywords: database, soil profiles, analytical (physical and chemical) data, soil data processing, database design, software implementation.




Soil conservation extension in Romania

Corneliu Rauta and Stelian Carstea

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest



Soil Conservation extension activity in Romania is part of global mandate of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and the Academy of Agricultural and Forest Sciences. This activity is very important because almost all the potentially arable lands (about 95 per cent) are already brought under the plough, and huge land reclamation works have been carried out for irrigation (3.2 mil ha), drainage (3.1 mil ha), soil erosion control (2.2 mil ha), etc. For providing better knowledge and management of natural resource base of agriculture, soil survey and testing works at national and local level have been performed, covering almost all the arable lands with soil maps at large scale (including land capability and soil suitability). Since 1975, a national soil quality monitoring system has been initiated, whose results point out the main soil conservation problems that must be considered within the soil conservation extension activity aiming at the sustainable agricultural and rural development, such as: soil erosion by water (7.1 mil ha), landslide (0.7 mil ha), low content of organic matter (7.2 mil ha) and nitrogen (6.2 mil ha), low and very low available phosphorus content (6.2 mil ha), zinc defficiency (1.5 mil ha), strong and moderate acidity (3.4 mil ha), structure deterioration – compaction (6.5 mil ha), chemical industrial pollution (0.9 mil ha), etc. After the uprising (December 22, 1989), the privatization of agriculture has generated over 6 million private owners with no more than 10 ha per family, most of them being poor, without capital and applying a rather primitive soil and crop management. For these reasons, the soil conservation extension is in full process of development aiming at making maximum contribution to the health and welfare of people and economy of country through the enhancement of family farms, improving community services and institutions, increasing the quality of life in rural Romania and ameliorating the wellbeing of consumers.

Keywords: soil conservation, extension activity, soil quality monitoring.


A procedure for physical characterization of soil as related to crop growth and farming techniques

A. Canarache

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest



Several characteristic curves are defined: the classical water retention and hydraulic conductivity ones, but also those describing variation with moisture content of resistance to penetration, air content, specific resistance to ploughing and bearing capacity. The set of these curves is represented in a combined graph (Figure 2). Limiting values for crop growth and/or for farming techniques of each of the physical properties are shown in this graph, but may also be computed (Table 2) and presented in a table. To correlate this procedure with climatic water resources, it is combined with a preliminary way of representing the extreme soil moisture content of a specific soil and environment. The range of favourable (non limiting) moisture content may be considered as a measure of the quality of a specific soil from the soil physics point of view. The kind of limitation first effective may offer information on causes of low quality and on ways to deal with them.

Keywords: soil physical properties, characteristic curve, limiting values.


The clay minerals in vertisols of Romania. Implication in soil physical and chemical properties


C. Craciun

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest



The mineralogical investigation of 28 profiles of vertisol from Romania indicated that there are two principal geographical zones with vertisols (West and South) which present some quantitative mineralogical differences at the colloidal level.

The established statistical relationships between some physical and chemical indices of seven vertisols from South and the amount of principal clay minerals (smectite and illite) demonstrated the ability of mineralogical data for the specification of the origin of clay influence on the physical and hydrophysical soil indices and for the specification of a hierarchy of the clay components from point of view of this influence.

The same type of relations indicated that cation exchange properties and reaction of these soils appear more closely related to the quality (mineralogical composition) than to the quantity of the clay fraction.

Keywords: clay minerals, physical and chemica properties of vertisols, Romania.


Research for developing synthetic indicators of biological, chemical and soil fertility potential


Gh. Stefanic, Georgeta Oprea si Mirela-Emilia Irimescu

Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial Crops – Fundulea



Soil fertility is a very important problem, not only for agricultural practice, but for soil science too. This paper presents different approaches of the “soil fertility” notion and of defining the fundamental features of soil, taken over from the scientifical literature, as well as our definition, together with the estimate methodology, whereby the soil may be compared and differentiated, without resorting to the criterion of the agricultural productivity. Thus, the quality of agricultural soils and the effect of agricultural technology will be more correct, avoiding the error of confounding the level and the fertility evolution with the productivity level of soils, the last depending, mainly, on the efficiency of stimulation means of the yields. The authors present a model of processing the data from the biotical, enzymatical and chemical analyses of some soil variants in the long term experiments and their grouping by a synthetic indicator of fertility depending on their fertility level.

Keywords: soil vital processes, enzymic potential, synthetic indicator of soil fertility, soil fertility definition.


Indices of phosphate rock (PR) use opportunity (PRUOIS) and of PR suitability for direct use (PRSIDU)

Z. Borlan, C. Hera

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest

*Research Institute for Cereals and Technical Crops Fundulea



Some aspects of phosphate rock (PR) use instead of water soluble phosphorus sources are dealt with in this paper. The studies were conducted using both 32P radioisotope dilution technique by labelling with 32P mineral phosphates on surface of soil particles and old non isotope difference method. Maize for green fodder (Zea mays L.) and raygrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) were grown in Mitscherlich type pots of 7 kg dry soil and in small pots of 1.25 kg dry soil capacity, respectively, on several base unsaturated soils belonging to Hapludoll and Hapludaff great soil groups. Soil aptitude to be dressed with phosphate rocks (PR) was judged based on experimental data considering soil adsorbed acidity (Ah), raised in power humus content (H2), cation exchange capacity (T), sum of exchangeable bases (SEB) and mobile (easily soluble) phosphate content (PAL) in the soil, combined in a rock phosphate use opportunity index of the soil (PRUOIS):

Rock phosphate suitability for direct use was evaluated by means of rate of PR-P dissolution (PRPRS) in a 0.6% ammonium heptamolybdate in 0,01 M calcium chloride solution (ppm P) and by carbonate content (%CaCO3) in PR, these both combined in a phosphate rock suitability index for direct use (PRSIDU):

PRSIDU [ppm P/ min] = PRPRS*(1-0.03*CaCO3)

Water insoluble P sources studied were : fluor apatite from Kola – Russia ; Morocco ; Kneifiss – Syria ; El Hassa – Jordan ; Gafsa – Tunisia ; North CarolinaUSA and AradIsrael, PR all compared with TSP applied in the same rate of P.

Neither PRUOIS nor PRSIDU taken apart could explain satisfactorily the variance of PR efficiency as P source as determined both by 32P isotope dilution and by old difference method, while synthetic index obtained by multiplicative combination of these: PRUOISxPRSIDU did correlate highly significantly with indices of agronomical efficiency of PR, assuring their determination of at least 80%.

Keywords: phosphate rock for direct use; soil and phosphate rock (PR) chemical properties; opportunity of phospate rock use.


Use of irradiated sewage sludge as fertilizer for oats and maize

M. Dumitru, D. M. Motelica, Adriana Alexandrescu, Doina Plaxienco, Eugenia Gament

Elisabeta Dumitru, Nicoleta Vrinceanu, I. Calciu

Ioana Prodan*, N. Prodan*

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest

*Agricultural Research Station, Teleorman



Research was organised in field with irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge on a Haplic Phaeozem using oats and maize as test crops. The experiments were set up in the field according to a complete randomized block design with 10 treatments (100kgN/ha from 1% a.e. 15N labelled fertilizer; 20kgN/ha from 10% a.e. 15N labelled fertilizer, non-irradiated and respectively irradiated sewage sludge equivalent to 50, 100, 150, 200 kgN/ha + 20 kgN/ha from 10% a.e. 15N labelled fertilizer).

The sewage sludge used in the experiments was taken from the waste water treatment plant of Pitesti and has the following average chemical characteristics: 2.17% total nitrogen, 300 mg/kg NH4 – N, 87 mg/kg NO3 – N, 60% moisture content, pH 7.44, 0.69% P, 0.48% K, 0.23% Na, 0.14% Ca, 0.06% Mg, 69 mg/kg Cu, 548mg/kg Zn, 125 mg/kg Pb, 8mg/kg Co, 26 mg/kg Ni, 396 mg/kg Mn, 280 mg/kg Cr, 9 mg/kg Cd.

The application of a 10 t/ha dose of sludge led to an increase tendency of oats and maize yield. The percentage of nitrogen from fertilizers which is used by oat crops was reduced (3.6-4.4%), irrespective of irradiated or non-irradiated sludge application. The application of sludge did not cause significant changes in soil chemical characteristics. No important accumulations of heavy metals in oat and maize plants were observed. The zinc concentration of oat straws and the cadmium concentrations of oat grains were lower in the treatments with irradiated sludge as compared to those with non-irradiated sludge. The data obtained allow us to take into consideration the possibility of using municipal sludge as fertilizer in agriculture, with low negative effects on environmental quality.

Keywords: irradiated sewage sludge, 15N labelled fertilizer, heavy metals.

On the hierarchical organization of the soil world (soil individuals and soilscapes)


N. Florea

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest



The author presents the successive subsystems of the soil world. Two main sequences of subsystems are distinguished: the internal or constitutive hierarchy, namely hierarchy of the matter integration in soil and the hierarchy of spatial-temporal soil organization.

The constitutive hierarchy includes the following subsystems: subatomic particles, atoms, molecules and crystals, colloids, biopedoplasma, basic matter of the soil phases, horizons, pedon/polypedon. In this hierarchy, the subsystems inherent to soil are only the last five: the others are not specific to soil but are present in soil and interact together.

The spatial-temporal hierachy may be interrelational or aggregational. The aggregational hierarchy refers to the subsystems utilized in the so-called soil zoning and regioning. This hierarchy is not systemic; it represents a systematization of territorial (spatial) units based on the soil cover similarity-dissimilarity criterion.

The interrelational hierarchy presents systemic character because its subsystems, pedosocion, pediom and peditory, represent soilscape units of different levels consisting of soil communities delimited on the systemic relation base.

The taxonomic hierarchy may be added. It consists of different taxonomic categories, but it can not be considered as a systemic hierarchy being only a hierarchical systematization of soil concepts.

The main specific features of the subsystems of the constitutive hierarchy of soil and of interrelational hierarchy of soilscapes are also presented.

Keywords: soil system; constitutive, aggregational and interrelational hierarchies, soil internal and spatial-temporal organization.


Ecofunctional soil profile

I. Munteanu

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest



Based on ecological soil functions within terrestrial ecosystems a new concept called “ecofunctional soil profile” is proposed. It is defined as “The ensemble of soil layers (horizons) that provides nutrients, air and water supply and root support for plants, that accomplishes filtering, buffering, storage and transforming functions of the soil within terrestrial ecosystems, and that serves as biological habitat and gene reserve for soil flora and fauna”.

The position of the soil cover, as the uppermost surficial layer of the Earth crust, confers to the soil an unique role within terrestrial ecosystems. The soil, itself a complex ecosystem, is a natural body with life in it (Murgoci, 1921), a vital part of the “earth support system”, and a critical link between inanimate rocks and minerals of the litosphere and the living plant, and animal organisms of the biosphere (Bridges & Van Barren, 1997).

At the time being are three main ecological functions of soil that have proved essential for life on earth (Council of Europe – 1990, quoted Van Linden, 1997):

-         contribution to biomass production: nutrient, air and water supply, root support for plants

-         filtering, buffering, storage and transforming functions (e.g. buffering and storage of rain water, filtering, buffering and storage of contaminants)

-         biological habitat and gene reserve: fauna and flora in the soil are certainly rich and indispensable for the surface species

In addition, three other activity related functions of the soil are recognised (ibid.):

-         physical medium: spatial base for buildings, roads and railways, sport fields, recreation areas, waste dumps and deposits etc

-         source of some raw materials; e.g. water, gravel, sand and minerals

-         geogenic and cultural heritage: geological and geomorphological information; preservation of historical information in the form of palaeontological and archaeological materials.

Face to the amentioned functions, especially the ecological ones, the questions that arises to thesoil scientist is how to correlate them with the various facets of soil profile concepts. The aim of this paper is to attempt a reliable answer to this problem.



The study of two Mediterranean ecosystems for the assessment of the desertification risk

I. Seceleanu, Alexandra Vasu,

F. N. Filip, C. Craciun, Gabi-Mirela Matei, S. Matei

I. Popescu, Ioana Taina, S. Chivulete

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest



The purpose of the paper is identification of the equilibrium-disequilibrium state of the natural terrestrial ecosystems in a hilly Mediterranean coastal area from Spain, for the management with environmental conservation, through an original ecosystemic interdisciplinary methodology. For this, were investigated two ecosystems with similar physical geographical conditions, an ecosystem E1, having vigorous corky oak trees of middle productivity and natural regeneration of Quercus sp. – the optimal productivity in the areal, and an ecosystem E2, having corky oak trees of low productivity due to its competition with acidofile species.

Keywords: characterization of ecosystems, desertification risk.


Biological activity from a fly ash layer covering a regosol – a micromorphological approach


Daniela Raducu, M. Dumitru, V. Capitanu

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest, Romania



Fly ash resulted from lignite combustion into the Doicesti electric power station are spread by winds in the neighbourhoods and deposited in a thick layer on the top of the soils.

A micromorphological analysis of a Regosol covered in time (during 50 years) by 13 cm thick fly ash layer were performed.

Micromorphologic examination emphasize that fly ash consist of mineral grains affected by burning (thermically altered), charred wood fragments, glass with vesicular structure and masses of individual calcite crystals and isotope particles. It also indicates that the biological activity is very high and structured the fly ash layer. Thus, more than 30% of the layer groundmass is organised in very friable granular aggregates (coprolites) producted by soil fauna.

They are also mixed with organic matter (in the form of tissue fragments, cell groups) and soil material brought by fauna from deeper horizons. This material is rich in colloids and could influence positively the cohesiveness of the fly ash layer.

Fly ash is also present in deeper horizons (until 50 cm) either as crack infillings (fallen from the top layer) or embedded into the coprolites.

Soil living organisms built up their own environment and adapted it to their needs for living. Thus, even if soil environment change drastically, in time organisms of the soil adapted rapidly to new conditions and become a more active and efficient pedogenetic factor.

Keywords: micromorphology, fly ashes.


Micromorphological characteristics of the gypsic and petrogypsic horizons of some gypsisols from Syria


Ioana Taina*, Tatiana Postolache*, N. Florea*

Kh. Al-Joumaa**

*Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry

**Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Syria



The aim of this micromorphological study is the comparison between gypsum forms from the gypsic and petrogypsic horizons of some soils corresponding to Gypsisols (FAO 1988) or Gypsids (Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 1994).

These soils – located in the arid region of the Raqqa-Deir-ez-Zor area, in Syria – are developed either on the weathering products from some stratified Neogenic evaporites, gypsic predominantly, or on the alluvial fans located at the lower part of an Euphrates terrace.

Micromorphological features as form, size, arrangement of gypsum (related to precipitation conditions) are described.

The lenticular habit is common in the studied soils. Prismatic and tabular crystals are rare and occur mainly in the C horizon of the Petric Gypsisols. The acicular habit is characteristic only for some microcrystals.

Euhedral crystals are the most frequent in these soils. Subhedral crystals occur in the petrogypsic horizons, in crystal chambers and tubes and in the surface horizon of the irrigated soil (as effect of crystals corrosion) and less in the gypsic horizon. Anhedral crystals, specific to the gypsum deposit, occur rarely in the petrogypsic horizon and in some channels and microcrystal chambers.

The large variation of crystals size observed in the petrogypsic horizon, in the surface of the irrigated soil and even in several gypsic horizon indicates different precipitation processes from different solutions. The sizes are approximately equal in the recent gypsic horizons.

The cementation realised by the penetration of gypsum crystals is specific to the petrogypsic horizon; the concave-convex and sutured contacts between gypsum crystals are the result of the alternating phenomena of dissolution-precipitation and preferential circulation of soil solution into intercrystalline space.

There is no cementation or it occurs seldom in the gypsic horizons where characteristic are the tangential and linear contacts between gypsum crystals.

Keywords: gypsisol, micromorphology.


Heavy metals in soil-plant-water-animal system within the areas polluted by emissions from the non-ferrous metallurgical industry


R. Lacatusu, C. Rauta, N. Avram*,

S. Carstea, N. Medrea*, Beatrice Kovacsovics, Maria Serdaru*, Mihaela Lungu,

I. Rasnoveanu, S. Taina, Carmen Mehendintu*, Veronica Tanasescu*

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry

*)National Institute for Veterinary Medicine “Pasteur”, Bucharest, Romania



The paper presents comparative data concerning the heavy metal pollution impact on soil-plant-water-animal system within three severely affected areas by emissions from the non-ferrous metallurgical industry in the Copsa Mica, Baia Mare, and Zlatna cities.

Depending on its nature and characteristics, the soil vulnerability to the impact of the acid rains and heavy metal pollution is high within the Baia Mare area and moderate within the Copsa Mica and Zlatna areas.

The polluting impact severity and the heavy metal content, estimated according to the Dutch system of classification and assessment of the pasture and meadow soil pollution, show a moderate soil pollution with Cd, Pb and Zn within the Copsa Mica area; a low soil pollution with Cd and Cu, but a moderate soil pollution with Pb and Zn, within the Baia Mare area; and a low soil pollution with Cd, but a moderate soil pollution with Cu, Pb and Zn, within the Zlatna area.

The quality of vegetation in the pastures and meadows within these areas is depreciated by the high content of heavy metals and the macronutrient deficiencies.

The ground water and the water of rivers tributary to the main rivers is not polluted, as compared with the sectors of the main rivers where the water, loaded with heavy metals, is discharged.

The ingestion of some grasses and soil loaded with heavy metals, and the drinking water, sometimes polluted with heavy metals, altered the animal health condition inducing saturnism cases with a lethal end. The heavy metal contents of some organs and components of affected animals are several tens times higher than the maximum allowable limits (MAL).

The transfer intensity of Cd and Pb from one environmental component to another is up to 18 times, 13 times, respectively, higher in the polluted areas compared with the non-polluted ones.

Keywords: heavy metals, soil, plant, water, animal, flowchart.


Research concerning recultivation of the sterile dumps resulted from surface mining operations in Romania

M. Dumitru1, Gh. Blaga2, I. Popescu1

1Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest

2Agricultural University Cluj-Napoca



The paper presents the results obtained in the field experiments on sterile dumps created by iron surface mining within the Capus area, Cluj county, and coal surface mining within the Rovinari area, Gorj county.

In the Capus case, the best results (on an average per 3 years) were obtained by organic and inorganic fertilisation (15 t/ha poultry manure plus N100P60K40). The increase of nitrogen rate led to significant yield increases of maize, oat and esparcet.

In the Rovinari case, the application of 40 t/ha cattle manure plus N100P60K40 led to yields of 3.366 kg/ha wheat, 4.130 kg/ha rye, 17t/ha clover hay and 18t/ha alfalfa hay.

The green manures (clover, lupine, lentil, pea, Dactylis glomerata and other grasses) ensure a high quality of vegetal mass able to increase the productive potential of these sterile dumps.



Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils


M. Dumitru*, M. Toti*, C. Ceausu**

Carolina Constantin*, Anca Voiculescu*, V. Capitanu*,

Elena Parvulescu**, Daniela Popa*

*Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry

Bucharest, 71331, Sector 1, Bd. Marasti no. 61, Romania

**Research Station for Cereals and Industrial Crops Albota

Albota commune, Arges county, cod 0310, Romania



Approximately 50.000 ha agricultural and forest lands are polluted by petrol hydrocarbons or by petrol hydrocarbons and brine, within the areas of petroleum extraction, transportation and processing.

The research carried out within two field experiments – one accidentally polluted and the other having a controlled pollution level -  led to the following conclusions: pollution with 0.5% petroleum decreased the maize yield with 36%, while pollution with 1% petroleum reduced the maize yield with 57%; high rates of organic (200t/ha) and inorganic (N300) fertilisers produced high yield increases (371%) under the condition of soil deep loosening; scarification and fertilisation (organic and inorganic) determined a significant increase of the microbial activity, revealed by the increase of dehydrogenase activity, number of bacteria and fungi, and number of species, which caused a very significant decrease of the petroleum pollution degree; diversity of the bacterial pollution increased in time and was higher in the treatments receiving manure, for instance, Arthrobacter species was prevailing in this case.


Some aspects concerning the oil pollution and brine in Romanian soils


M. Toti, Carolina Constantin,

Maria Dracea, V. Capitanu, Maria Damian

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest



The authors present the main types of soils pollution in Romania taking into account both the nature of pollutant and direction of its movement in soil. Thus, the following types were identified: pollution with oil residues, pollution with salty water and mixed pollution. From the viewpoint of pollutant movement in soil, descendent pollution, ascendent pollution and both descendent and ascendent pollution were considered. A classification of soil and groundwater pollution in terms of loading with oil residues is presented. Also, the geographical distribution of soil pollution in Romania is presented, as well as some comments concerning the effects of soil pollution on different soils.

Keywords: soil, oil pollution, brine, salts, leaching, C/N ratio, reclamation.


The beginnings of the International Society of Soil Science contributions of Romanian scientists

Gh. Lixandru

University of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Iasi, Romania



In this paper, the international agrogeological Conferences (1909, 1910, 1922, 19240 initiated by Gh. Munteanu-Murgoci, P. Treitz and A. Nabokih are called up. The role of these conferences and of some personalities from different countries of the world for the foundation and organization of the International Society of Soil Science is emphasized.

Keywords: the International agrogeological Conferences, foundation of ISSS.



Rationalitatea stiintei solului (adevar si neadevar in stiinta solului)

Rationality of soil science (truth and falsehood in soil science)


I. Munteanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


“Seek always for what is obvious, and accept nothing else except as the result of inference from something obvious which has been found previously. With this rule, a great simplification is effected, and vast masses of erudition can be swept aside as irrelevant”



Two fundamental concepts of soil science, namely the definition of soil and the soil genesis theory have been analysed by applying some criteria from the Philosophy of Science and the Theory of Knowledge. It has been found that the verisimilitude (truthlikeness) of both these concepts increased through time, and soil science as a whole has a realist-rationalist base, although some degree of “anarchy” still persists in some of its branches (e.g. soil classification).

Keywords: soil science, verisimilitude


Contributii la elaborarea unei abordari sistemice privind protectia si ameliorarea solului


Contributions to elaborate a systemic approach on soil protection and amelioration

M. Motoc si S. Carstea

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice “Gheorghe Ionescu-Sisesti” Bucuresti




Having in view the concept of soil as a complex multifunctional system, some aspects of soil-vegetation cover evolution under the conditions of anthropic interaction are presented.

The temporary variability of soil productivity (Figures 1, 2 and 3) determined by the soil degradation processes and their control by amelioration and ecological reconstruction works is analysed.

The general analysis scheme is adapted taking into account the characteristics of soil degradation processes (soil erosion, landslide – Figure 4, chemical pollution).

The soil protection and amelioration are considered major component parts of soil sustainable use strategies for biomass production of soil.

In this context, some considerations are made on socio-economic factors governing the decisions of land users aiming at the ensuring the sustainable use of soil resources.

Keywords: basic soil functions, soil productivity, ecological functions fo soil-vegetation system, soil degradation processes, soil erosion, landslide, soil chemical pollution, soil vulnerability.


Unele aspecte privind posibilitatea de predictie asupra unor insusiri ale solului cu ajutorul cantitatii si calitatii argilei

Some aspects concerning the prediction possibility on some soil properties with the help of clay quantity and quality

C. Craciun, I. Piciu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



Starting from the established relations between some physical and chemical indices of the soil and some mineralogical parameters, this paper is an attempt of prediction on some alluvial and gleyey soils properties with the help of clay mineral information.

The comparison of the values of some soil characteristics (wilting point and cation exchange capacity) obtained by direct measurements with the values of the same indices obtained by calculation with the help of regression equations which include the clay and the smectite content of soil, suggests that in certain situation, considered favourable, the mineralogical information could be used for predictive purpose. In spite of this fact, such of predictions are limited from the quantitative point of view.

Keywords: clay minerals, physical properties of soils.


Eficienta agronomica a fosforitelor ca surse de fosfor pentru plante: conditii favorizante si restrictive

Alte cercetari folosind metoda dilutiei izotopice a 32P, urmarind sporirea utilizarii productive in plante a P din rocile fosfatice si din soluri



In continuarea cercetarilor cu roci fosfatice (RF) din prima pare a acestei lucrari, in aceasta a 2-a parte se discuta mai intai despre sensul echivalarii RF cu triplul superfosfat (TSP) si cu alte ingrasaminte fosfatice solubile ca surse eficiente de P pentru plante. Inteleasa ca fiind pur speculativa, o astfel de echivalare poate porni de la corelatia stransa a RdfRF (fosfor in plante derivat din roca fosfatica) precum si a altor variabile dependente cu planta cu indicele sintetic (ICRFADxIOFS) a caror regresie reciproca poate fi descrisa printr-o ecuatie exponentiala inversa (numita de tip Mitscherlich).

In continuare se avanseaza propunerea ca acest indicator sintetic sa fie utilizat pentru estimarea cantitatilor de RF necesare pentru inlocuirea partiala sau totala a TSP si a altor surse de P solubil. O astfel de posibilitate provine si se datoreaza compensarii reciproce dintre insusirile chimice ale solului si ale RF in mobilizarea P din acestea din urma pentru plante.

In lucrare se arata, de asemenea, ca metoda dilutiei izotopice a 32P a permis abordarea problemei sporirii utilizarii productive in plante a P din RF prin aplicarea impreuna a RF si a TSP, precum si prin aplicarea pe cale foliara a unor compozitii fertilizante continand aminoacizi si ureide. Prin utilizarea acestei metodologii s-a demonstrat ca influenta pozitiva a unor astfel de practici asupra reactivitatii RF in sol este statistic semnificativa.

O procedura de extractie din sol a P mobil cu o solutie 0,6% de molibdat de amoniu in 0,01 M CaCl2 la un pH de 4,3 s-a dovedit a fi cea mai corespunzatoare pentru solurile fertilizate cu RF (comparativ cu metodele AL, NaHCO3 si NH4F-HCl-Bray Nr. 2). Utilizate la finele unor experiente cu raigras in vase mici (dupa circa 150 de zile de interactiune ca RF cu solurile), toate aceste metode ofera posibilitatea evaluarii insusirilor RF pentru aplicarea directa.

Cuvinte cheie : echivalarea RF cu TSP ; sporirea reactivitatii RF prin aplicarea in sol impreuna cu TSP si aplicarea pe plante a unor compozitii cu aminoacizi si ureide.


Unele probleme privind solul si amenajarile din irigatie


Some problems concerning the soil and the achievement of the irrigation systems

N. Florea

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice “Gheorghe Ionescu-Sisesti” Bucuresti




After a short presentation of the role and contribution of the soil studies (land suitability for irrigation), some actual problems of the land irrigation are discussed. Among these ones the followings were taken into account: the irrigation necessity (in subhumid regions), the necessity of the entire achievement of the projected works, the quality of the irrigation water, the possible environmental changes, the monitoring necessity of the irrigation systems and the improvement of the soil survey and interpretation methodology. Some topics for a soil and land researches are suggested.

Keywords: soil survey for irrigation, irrigation necessity, environmental changes


Microzonarea pedo-geoclimatica actualizata a teritoriului Romaniei


Pedo-geoclimatic microzoning of the Romania’s territory

N. Florea, Georgeta Untaru

Rodica Vespremeanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



The authors present an up-to-dated pedo-geoclimatic microzoning of the Romania’s territory. By comparison with the previous pedoclimatic microzoning, the new one includes the delimitation of a new climatic zone “very cold and very humid” (corresponding to the high mountaneous region), the delineation of some new soil districts (with Greyzems and Phaeozems) and a better spatial distribution and composition of the soil districts.

Each delineation of the different soil districts is characterized by some attributes: climatic conditions, dominant landforms, dominant soil genetic type (soil subgroup), area, texture of the dominant soils, geomorphic unit and rating index for arable land. The limiting factors and improvement requirements are found in the previous microzoning.

Keywords: pedo-geoclimatic microzoning, Romania


Modificari in invelisul de sol din incinta agricola Sulina

Changes into the soil cover from the Sulina agricultural polder

Gh. Curelariu, I. Munteanu, C. Grigoras, C. Iordachescu, Sorina Dumitru

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



On the base of researches carried-out at several stages (1982, 1986 and 1996 years) the changes into the soil cover from Sulina polder that come out after the damming and drainage works of the territory and more than a tehn years period of land cultivation, are presented. The main changes are the following: the thickness decrease of peat layers from 0,8-1,8 m to less than 0,4 m by burning, mineralization and contraction; the increase of soil salinity from weak to moderate, to strong and very strong as a result of interaction of some factors such as marine substratum, strongly mineralized ground water table near the surface, imperfect to weak drainage, deficit of precipitation and high evapotranspiration; the modification of soil distribution and classification as a consequence of diminuation or disappearance of the organic material (peat), intensification of salinity and changing of soil moisture regime.

Keywords: soil cover, peat layer, Sulina agricultural polder.


Aprecierea gradului de poluare cu metale grele a solurilor forestiere din zona Baia Mare

Appraisal of forest soil pollution degree by heavy metals in Baia Mare area


C.Ciobanu, R. Lacatusu

Eufrosina Dulvara, L. Latis

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti




In the first part of the report the loading by heavy metals of the forest soils in Baia Mare area is presented, namely in Level I monitoring sites (10 sites in county network 16x16 km) and in Level II monitoring sites (17 sites in the neighbourhood area of Baia Mare city). We can remark the high values for Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd contents in litters and in forest soils of the Level II monitoring network, maximum of the contents exceeding by far the maximum admissible limits proposed by Kloke (1980) and quasiunanimously accepted in Europe, although some decreases of  their contents in the last few years were observed.

In the second part of the report it is presented an application of the method proposed by Lacatusu (1995), using the indices of loading/pollution in correlation with clay and organic matter content, in accordance with the correlations established in the Dutch system formulae (1988), presented by Ewers (1991). Using this method high singular pollution degrees (of a single metal) for Level II network were obtained, too, although the calculated reference values are greater than that used till now.

Summing the pollution degrees of the four heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) enabled us to calculate the multiple pollution degree; this value varied from weak to excessive, the greater values being that of the sites situated at a distance of 1-2 km from pollution sources on the direction of dominant winds.

The utilization of the new method has the advantage of taking into consideration of the most important parameters of the soils for the capacity to retain the pollutants (clay and organic matter content), enabling us to do a better differentiation of the soils concerning the pollution.

Keywords: heavy metals, soil pollution degree, pollution index, loading/pollution index.


Poluarea apelor si a solului in zonele influentate de tabacariile din vestul tarii

D. Tarau*, Gh. Rogobete**, Irina Tarau***

*OSPA Timisoara, **Universitatea Politehnica Timisoara, ***SCPCP Timisoara



The study reports on soil and water pollution from the light industry, more accurate from the tanneries. There are examined areas with a great number of tanneries, like the zone of Sebis, Pancota, Domasnea, Fenes and Mehadica, from the west of Romania. It was been made physical and chemical analyses of the soil and water and was identified some pollutants, distinct ions of crom, vapours of sulphuric acid etc. Strong phenomenon of soil and water pollution was ascertained in Sebis and Pancota areas. It was suggested some measures to control and abatement the environment pollution.


Installing suction samplers to collect nitrate-leaching and monitoring soil moisture and hydraulic potential during an infiltration experiment within swell-shrink soils

Cr. Paltineanu1 and K. R. Howse2

1Research and Engineering Institute for Irrigation and Drainage Baneasa-Giurgiu Romania

2Rothamstead Experimental Station UK



The main purpose of this paper was to find an adequate experimental method on installing porous cups in  shrink-swell soils under field conditions and monitoring the soil moisture content and soil hydraulic potential during an infiltration experiment using a nitrate solution.

More measuring devices were installed in a small area on single-line soil profiles: two access tubes for a neutron moisture meter, tensiometers, piezometers, porous cups.

The small surface area needed to install many devices to measure various soil physical variables is the effect of the instalation under different angles on the same vertical line within the soil profile, thus resulting in some advantages on the accuracy of the experimental findings and the small measurement spatial variability.

Below the water table in the heavy-clay soils with intensive shrink-swell processes the overburden potential increases as the water table rises. A direct, almost linear correlation was found between the overburden potential and the depth below the water table.

The best results were obtained for the large porous cups installed with silica powder from the treatments investigated regarding the type of porous cups used, while the poorest results were recorded with the small porous cups installed directly in soil without silica powder.

Keywords: tensiometers, overburden potential, hydraulic gradient


Fertilizarea in cadrul unor sisteme de productie vegetala durabile. 2. Potasiul


Fertilizer use in enduring (sustainable) crop production systems. 2. Potassium


Z. Borlan, I. Gavriluta, Daniela Stefanescu, Ariadna Alexandrescu, Dobrita Nebunelea

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti



Several aspects of theoretical and practical interest of potassium fertilization within enduring (durable) crop production systems are being dealt with in this paper, which is the second dedicated to this problem. Durability (sustainability) of such production systems supposes a certain degree of soil agrochemical stability, especially as far as nutrient supplying power is concerned. Among pertinent to potassium fertilization within enduring crop production systems aspects presented in the paper are:

-         levels of mobile potassium content (KAL) and of efficient potassium (Ks) in the ploughed layer and the need of these both to increase in pace with sustainable crop yields

-         estimation of optimal potassium fertilization rates to ensure mobile potassium content stability in the soil as a contribution to yield stability in such production systems (DOSAR).

The proposed algorhythms for estimation of KAL, Ks and of the DOSAR of K2O are evolved and thoroughly fundamented based on long duration field fertilizer experiments. The results of the latter were tackled in a classical, Baule-Mitscherlich, inspired mathematics. A quantitative comparison of DOE (economically optimal rates) with DOSAR rates of K2O for wheat and maize (for kernels) are given in the paper.

Keywords: sustainable productions; mobile potassium; potassium rates.


Comportarea si eficienta agronomica a ureei si derivatilor ei pe soluri nisipoase

Behaviour and agronomic effectiveness of urea and its derivates on sandy soils


Emilia Dorneanu*, A. Dorneanu**,

Victoria Bogdanescu**, Victoria Sonea**

*Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie

** Baza experimentala a Chimenerg Craiova




The paper is dealing with the biochemical transformation in sandy soil (psammosol) of urea and its derivates, including both the condensation compounds and those of addition. Laboratory studies show that hydrolysis of urea and its derivates takes place differently according to the time, temperature and the properties of the type. The soluble fertilizers are characterized by a rapid hydrolisis, pH reaching the value 9 in the first 5 days, and the total losses by volatilization as ammonia in atmosphere, after 33 days, are of 26.2-27.4%. On the contrary, slow released nitrogen fertilizers are characterized by a slower hydrolisis, especially in the case of CDU, and the losses by volatilization are between 6.31 and 9%.

The organo-mineral fertilizers and those slow released nitrogen ensured higher productive use degrees than urea its soluble derivatives (addition compounds).

The urea and its soluble derivatives may be used with positive results on sandy soils, decreasing the most part of losses, if their application is split into 2-3 fractions.

Keywords: volatilization, hydrolisis, nitrification, slow released nitrogen fertilizers, organo-mineral fertilizers, productive use degrees.



Sugar beet response to NPK in long term field experiments with fertilizers on chernozem soils in Romania

M. Dumitru, Z. Borlan and Daniela Stefanescu

Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest, Romania



Factorial NPK long term field experiments with fertilizers in appropriate crop rotations on 8 rainfed and 7 irrigated chernozem soils were started in 1967-1968 aimed at disclosing fertilizer effect on yield of sugar beet in rotations with other field crop and on some soil chemical properties (pH, PAL, KAL). Along with usual Fisher’s analysis of variance, the experimental data have been interpreted also according to Mitscherlich-Baule nutrient sufficiency concept considering yield regressions on both efficient nutrient supply from soil and on applied NPK as fertilizers. Based on yield regressions on both soil agrochemical properties (nitrogen index-NI, mobile phosphorus PAL and potassium KAL in soil ploughed layer characterising N, P and K supplying power of the soils) and on fertilizer applied (N:0-160; P:0-160 and K:0-160kg/ha year) model formula have been established and used, to quantify:

-         efficient N, P, K supplies from soil nutrient reserves;

-         degrees of sugar beet nutrient sufficiencies

-         economically sound rates (ESR) of N, P and K for maximising net profit per unit surface

-         optimal rates (ORSSSCP) of factory made (NPK) fertilizers aimed at stabilising soil chemical properties as a background for sustained crop productions

-         impact of ESR and of ORSSS on KAL in the ploughed layer

-         specific yield increases (kg of yield per 1 kg of N, P205, K20) from applied fertilizers in ESR and ORSSSCP

Keywords: sugar beet fertilization; degrees of sufficiency with NPK; K soil decline


Argumente pedologice pentru precizarea limitelor si evolutiei unitatilor de relief din Campia Romana de la est de Arges

Pedological arguments for the specification of the boundaries and evolution of relief units from the Romanian Plain at East of Arges river


N. Florea, Rodica Vespremeanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti



Soil territorial units existing in the soil map were grouped in soil communities taking into consideration: development stage of soil profile, origin of parent material and present pedogeological processes which reflect the soil and relief dynamics. In this way the oro-pedological map (or geomorphic – pedological map) was obtained.

The relief-soil units of this map were compared with the geomorphological maps. This examination results in a range of pedological arguments for the specification of the boundaries of different relief units and subunits; for emphasizing the proper characteristics of each relief units; for the delineation of the present divagation areas with periodical inundation and alluvial sedimentation, and of the subsidence area, larger than divagation area; for the specification of many old river courses, of alluvial fans, of extension and age of different terraces; for a more adequate description of the plain formation stages.

Therefore, the soil map data can be very useful from geomorphological point of view and have to be utilized more systematically.

Keywords: correlation between territorial soil units and relief units, East Romanian Plain.


Unele precizari in legatura cu terminologia si diagnoza solurilor saraturate


Some specifications concerning the terminology and classification of salt-affected soils

N. Florea*, S. Udrescu**

* Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti

** Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Bucuresti




It is discussed in this paper the present significance of some terms, namely salinization, alkalization (sodization), alkalinization, solonetzization, solodization, saline soil, alkali soil, saline-alkali soil according to the Romanian System of Soil Classification (1980), as well as the terms of primary and secondary salinization.

Further, the defining parameters of different categories of saline or alkali soil materials (or horizons) as well as the diagnostic criteria for salt-affected soil framing in the different taxonomic units depending on their salinity and alkalinity degree and the appearance depth according to the Romanian System of Soil Classification (1980) are specified.

Also, the notions of ground water critical depth and ground water critical drainage in connection with soil salinization and the term of evolution rate of a property are discussed.

Keywords: salinization, alkalization (sodization), alkalinization, evolution rate.



Soil vulnerability and pollution within the Zlatna area

R. Lacatusu, M. Dumitru, I. Rasnoveanu, C. Ciobanu, Mihaela Lungu, St. Carstea, Beatrice Kovacsovics, Carmen Baciu, Nineta Rizea

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest




Within the Central-Western part of Romania, in the Zlatna area, around an industrial complex involved in mining, metallurgical and chemical activities, the environment in general and the soils in particular are polluted due to the acid rains and heavy metals on a surface area of about 55.664 hectares, of which about 68 per cent present a high vulnerability to the impact of these pollution types.

The increase of the natural soil acidity up to 3.6-3.9 pH values and of soil loading with heavy metals at content levels exceeding up to 41 (Pb), 11 (Cu), 7 (Zn), 4 (Cd) times the maximum allowable limits contributed to occurrence of soil base depletion, micro-biological activity disturbance, organic matter degradation, soil structure deterioration, sheet and gully erosion, as well as landslides on about 10 per cent of the whole surface area affected by the emissions from the Zlatna factory.

Keywords: heavy metals, soil vulnerability, soil pollution, acid rains, soil degradation.



Despre notiunea de sol

On the soil notion

N. Florea

Academia de Stinte Agricole si Silvice “Gheorghe Ionescu Sisesti”, Bucuresti



The basic aspects regarding the concept of soil are discussed, the soil being considered either as a soil continuum at Earth’s surface, or as soil bodies, components (or segments) of this continuum.

The soil profile (the pedon) represents the basic element in the soil study, but the soil as a natural body has a volume which occupies an area at land surface. The polypedon corresponds the homogenous terrestrial soil unit at the lowest level of classification.

The basic soil entity or reference soil body as a concept, is used in soil taxonomy, while the basic geographic soil unit as a territorial unit is used in soil survey.

There is discussed also the problem of existence or non-existence of the soil individuals (soil entities). Some soil scientists consider that soil individuals do not exist like vegetal or animal individuals, being a produce of man ability; only the soil continuum (soil cover) exists in reality. In fact, the soils world has its specific; between soil individuals there exists a continuous transition and the limits between them are often conventionally established.

At the end, a soil definition is presented and the relation between soil and landscape is discussed.

The paper rises and important issue of meditation.


Asupra unor probleme privind studiile pedologice

I. Munteanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologiesi Agrochimie, Bucuresti


On some problems concerning soil survey



Soil survey is an interdisciplinary activity concerned mainly with soil resources inventory. As such it must conform to the needs of a continuously evolving society. At present it is a cross-roads when it must face to a double challenge: (a) to diversify and integrate soil information to become able to respond not only to utilitarian problems but also to environmental and ambiental ones, and (b) to ongoing technologies advances.

Keywords: soil survey, soil report, soil resources


Unele aspecte esentiale ale strategiei privind protectia, ameliorarea si utilizarea durabila a solurilor din Romania

Some essential aspects of strategy on conservation and sustainable use of soil in Romania


Stelian Carstea

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice “Gheorghe Ionescu Sisesti”



About 80 per cent of agricultural soils and a significant part of forestry soil in Romania are facing various and severe problems which harmfully affect their quality and productivity, effectively diminishing the agricultural and forestry output. Only the agricultural production decrease is estimated, on an average, at about 20 per cent every year. On the other hand, the ecological restoration and rehabilitation of deteriorated soils and landscapes require investments estimated at about 25-30 billion USA dollars for a period of 15-25 years or even more.

In order to get a sustainable use of soil resources for different purposes, the paper presents some essential aspects of a strategy regarding conservation and sustainable use of soils in Romania, having in view, among other things, the adequate change of the present land uses, sustainable agriculture development based on the family farms, sustainable forestry development, integrated development of rural areas, etc.

Keywords: soil of Romania, soil conservation, restructuring land uses, sustainable agriculture and forestry, family farm, prime farmland, timberland or rangeland, unique farmland or timberland, wetland.


Unele probleme privind erodabilitatea solului in cazul eroziunii in suprafata

Some problems regarding soil erodability in surface erosion

M. Motoc, V. Morarescu

*Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice

**Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti



There are presented the soil properties which determine erodability and the methods used in Romania for its establishment.

The researches made with flow pots during 30 years and those concerning rills formation, in plots with 100 m length, have led to concerning some conclusions and to the establishment of correction coefficients, regarding seasonal erodability variability and the influence of some soil tillage at wheat and corn crops.

In the case of surface erosion, the erodability must be approached from the following points of view: pedological – the long-term stable soil properties; climatic – the variability depending on the climate conditions; technological – the variability depending on the soil tillage which influence the breaking degree, the surface roughness and the infiltration capacity.

Keywords: soil erodability, erodability variability.


Agriculture systems efficiency in South-West Romania. Case Study based on agroclimatic simulation modelling and GIS techniques


C. Simota1, M. Dumitru1, Roxana Vintila1, H. Kieft2, M. Rounsevell3

1Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest, Romania

2ETC Ecoculture, Leusden, The Netherlands

3Catholic University, Leuven, Belgium



Profound changes occur in farm management in Romania in the last decade of this century. The farming reality can characterised as a large majority of low external input farming techniques. Both investors or insurance companies and agricultural policy-makers are challenged to design development models based on current farmers reality. Furthermore the effects of inefficient farming techniques on the environment must be taken into account in policy design. International agreements and protection of Romania’s natural resources demand that the contribution of the agricultural sector to the pollution sector of the Danube River Basin has to decrease. The major nutrients pollution come from inefficient applications of mineral fertilisers and manure. This type of questions asks for re-thinking of the agricultural production systems from two perspectives. From the production prospective: the ratio between inputs and outputs has to become far more efficient to become profitable. This means that the highest inputs levels are not automatically the most economic ones. From the environmental prospective the input-output ratio has to reach its new optimum for the various farming systems to further decrease its contribution to pollution.

The case study of this article has assessed the optimum input levels of mineral fertiliser, fuel and labour from an economic perspective, and expressed this in yields, farm income, and energy consumption for four major crops (winter wheat, maize, soybeans and sunflower) in three basic production systems: Survival Agriculture (SA), Low Input Sustainable Agriculture (LISA) and High Input Agriculture (HIA). The assessment is based on a Romanian Agro-climatic simulation model (ROIMPEL), on a Dutch Economic Energy Analysis Model, on experiences with the IMPEL project (Integrated Model to Predict European Landuse) and on GIS-techniques. In addition the environmental impact of nitrate-leaching was modelled for the LISA and the HIS systems.

The study arrives at the conclusion that LISA (Optimised Low Input Agriculture) is the agricultural production system that gives acceptable yields and benefits for the majority of farmers under current socio-economic conditions in South-Western Romania. Survival agriculture (SA) gives small economic benefits to farmers but yields too little for food stability at macroeconomic level. High input agricultura HIA gives higher yields but lower economic benefits than LISA. The nitrates leached from LiSA are around 30 kg/ha whereas this is around 100 kg/ha for HIA.


Efectul lucrarilor ameliorative asupra regimului de umiditate si starii de salinizare a lacovistei puternic salinizate din zona preterasica a incintei Albita-Falciu


The effect of the amelioration works on the water regime and the degree of salinisation of the salic humic gleysol from the dammed floodplain area Albita Falciu


O. Tomita, F. Filipov

Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Iasi



The researches were carried out on the subsurface drainage experimental field on the salic gleysol from low zone situated on the floodplain of river Prut.

Subsurface drainage was executed at distance of 8 m between drainage lines and 0,8 m depth of pipe setting. The purpose of the drainage works was to take over and to evacuate soluble salts by leaching with irrigation water in order to diminish the degree of salinisation. The main aspects of this paper concern the characterisation of some physical and chemical properties of the ameliorated soil, water regime and the influence of the leaching irrigation on the degree of salinisation. The water regime of the ameliorated soil depends on the deficit or excedent of rains and the irrigation rate. The annual average period of the excess water was 204 days manifested in the cold season and after rainy periods. After leaching period (1973-1977) the movement of water is stabilised according to dominated orizontal descendant and radial water flow to subsurface drainage filter. The content of soluble salts on the soil profiles situated at 1 m by the drainage lines decreases more than on the soil profile situated at middle distance between drainages. After 11 years (1978-1989) of soil cultivation and annual average irrigation application of 1500 m3/ha, the content of soluble salts decreased with 59% on the depths 0-40 cm and with 45% on the depths 40-80cm.


The influence of temperature on the properties of Al-substituted goethites

V. Schwertmann*, C. Craciun**

*Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany

**Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest, Romania



The researches concerning the influence of temperature on the properties of Al-substituted goethites synthesized at different temperatures (between 25 and 700C) revealed the following aspects: The unit cell parameter (a, b, c and V) decreased with increasing Al but any given Al, there was a tendency for the a unit cell parameters to be higher at lower temperature but hardly for b and c. The crystals became larger as temperature increased. With increasing Al multidomainic crystals turned into monodomainic ones. The crystals became smaller but the domains became larger. The observations by TEM (transmission electron microscope) allowed the measurement of the length and width of the crystals but also their thickness because crystals resting on the a-c plane could be distinguished from those resting on the b-c plane.


Fertilizarea in cadrul unor sisteme de productie vegetala durabile

3. Azotul si continutul de humus


Fertilisation in sustainable crop production systems

3. Nitrogen rate and soil humus content

Z. Borlan, I. Gavriluta, Daniela Dana, Daniela Stefanescu, Dobrita Nebunelea

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



As a third note of the series dedicated to fertilizer use in durable crop production systems, this paper presents a bunch of nitrogen fertilisation in sustainable crop production systems. It is demonstrated that in such systems factory-made nitrogen sources ought to be applied in economically optimal rates (EOR), which are to be established taking into account crop response to nitrogen as recorded in accurate field experiments (through nitrogen action coefficient Ca, found to be in a complex inverse relationship with expected yield Rs), unit agricultural product price/fertilizer cost ratio (PURp/CUN) and nitrogen supplying power of the soil through nitrogen index IN of the and by considering also the presence of nitrates in the 60-90cm thick upper soil layer, especially at the spring advent). Sustainability of the relevant soil agrochemical indices, especially of humus and organic nitrogen in the soil ploughed layer in enduring crop production systems ought to be accomplished not merely by applying factory-made nitrogen but also by means of adequate crop sequences with perennial forage crops. FYM use, through all available natural sources of efficient nitrogen and oth. Algorithms and formulas for handling of pertinent informations so to arrive at EOR of N and to economical indices of N use in different crops as well as to estimations of effects in different crop sequences and organic fertilizers may have on humus organic nitrogen content in soil ploughed layer are being presented in the paper.

Keywords: sustainable crops, humus, nitrogen, nitrogen rates.


Cercetari referitoare la solurile cernoziomoide din depresiunea Ciuc

II – Formare si evolutie


Researches concerning the phaeozems from Ciuc intermountain depression

II – The genesis and evolution


I. Rasnoveanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



The paper emphasizes some aspects concerning the genesis and evolution of phaeozems from Ciuc intermountain depression, identified by I. Rasnoveanu and Anisoara Rasnoveanu, in 1967-1968. Their development, includes three phases of evolution, pedogenetic processes.

  1. Hydromorphic phase, during which the soil developed in a lower relief conditions, in floodplain, under the specific pedogenesis processes: as bioaccumulation and gleyzation.
  2. drainage phase, during which the soil developed on a higher relief, terraces and alluvial fan, the pedogenetic processes were: low bioaccumulation and the preservation of relict gleyzation.
  3. the elluvial-illuvial phase, in which the higher and more developed relief of terraces and piedmonts favoured the development of clay illuviation and stagnogleyzation processes. Also accretion process manifested.


Implicatii pedogenetice ale cercetarii profilelor de sol din asezarile arheologice

Pedogenetical implications of the investigation of soil profiles from the archaeological settlements


Gh. Gata, C. Iordachescu, C. Lazar

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


The soil profiles with archaeological strate evolved on eolien deposita show a succesive burial of the soil horizons due to the new eolian materials.

The archaeological materials by their position and modification produced during soil evolution yield informations about the pedogenetical processes. The red ornamental ochre on the sherds confirms the lack or the limited dispersion of iron oxides. The calcareous crusts on some sherds in the BC horizon show an eolian contribution with carbonates.

The archaeological strata date by their age the soil horizons and allow the estimation of this forming rate. In the assumption of a continuous and constant rate the thickness of eolian stratum was 2-3 cm century with a content of 2-4% CaCO3.

If the composition of the sources does not change during the time the analitical data suggest that from the beginning of neolithical age were produced continuous attenuation of eolian transport agents attested by a continuous increase of clay fraction content during eolian sedimentation. This attenuation appear to be more accentuated at Vadastru in Romanati Plain.

The neolithical anthropic contribution produced an accumulation of iron, lead and zinc into the archaeological stratum of each archaeological profile. This concentration stay also today after 5-6 millenia, the more so as the element is less soluble.

Keywords: soil horizon dating, archaeological strata, soil profile.


Poluarea cu metale grele a solurilor din partea estica a municipiului Bucuresti

Pollution with heavy metals of soils in the Eastern part of Bucharest city

R. Lacatusu, I. Rasnoveanu, Beatrice Kovacsovics, Mihaela Lungu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti



Soils around the « Acumulatorul » - « Neferal » industrial zone, located in the eastern part of Bucuresti city, are mainly represented by Brown Reddish soils and Argilluvial Chernozems. The daily emissions from the two industrial enterprises have polluted various land areas with Pb (1,748 hectares), Cu (1,314 hectares), and Zn (874 hectares). The maximum depth reached by polluting chemical elements with values higher than the maximum allowable limits was 65 cm for Pb, and 28 cm for Cu and Zn. About 50 hectares near the eastern part of “Neferat” enterprise is very severely polluted, needing measures for ecological rehabilitation.

Translocation of metals from the polluted soils into plants differs depending on the nature of chemical elements and plants. The highest translocation rates have been recorded with Cd and Zn and the lowest with Cu. The most sensitive plant at heavy metals pollution was lettuce and the most resisting was soybean.

Keywords: soil, plant, pollution, heavy metals, east Bucuresti city.


Influenta emisiilor termocentralei Mintia-Deva asupra calitatii solurilor si unele preocupari manageriale prezente si de perspectiva privind protectia mediului ambiant


Influence of emissions from Mintia-Deva power station on soil quality and some present and future managerial concerns regarding environmental protection


V. Capitanu*, M. Toti*, Claudia Balaceanu*

V. Vaida**, P. Sirbu**, T. Vasiu**

*Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti

**Sucursala – Electrocentrale Deva



The paper presents some particular aspects regarding the environmental impact of the Mintia-Deva power station burning coal.

In this view, special attention is paid to soil and forest pollution on a large land area around this power station due to emissions evacuated by stack and to ashes blown from ash dumps.

In order to mitigate the harmful effects of these pollution types, the Administration Board of the power station initiated, with positive results, practical measures, such as gas cleaning installations, stack raising, protection of ash dumps against the ash blowing by fixation with vegetation.


2000 – vol 2

Unele consideratii despre sol si societate

Some considerations about soil and society

Prof. dr. Nicolae Florea



Some aspects concerning the relations between soil and society are taken account. The soil is a valuable resource by its functions in the nature and society and by services that can provide, the soil and soil science playing an important role in the development of human society. But the soil is not an easily renewable resource like water and air. Having in vue its stability, the soil is an efficient parameter for appraisement of the quality of the environment and its change.

The soil is an asset, a common good for all the mankind which deserves attention and care.

The people and the society must be seen in present not as external agent, but as intrinsec component of ecosystems, with all the consequences concerning the man attitude or ethics in respect to soil and the treatment of the soil as a partner of living together.

The pedology, as a natural and applied science, has to respond to the society challenges and adapt the research to social demands; it serves not only the agriculture, but also other domains (forestry, biology, ecology, geography, environmental development and protection and others).

Nowadays it is necessary to interweave more closely pedology with ecological problems and environmental sciences, as well as with economical issues and social sciences.


Zinc distribution in the clay, silt and sand fractions and in organic matter of some Oltenia soils

Gh. Gata, Mihaela Lungu, Daniela Popa, C. Grigoras, Beatrice Kovacsovics, Elena Bugeac, Rodica Lazar, Anghel Mihailescu


Both the geochemical distribution of Zinc in Romanian soils (Bajescu, 1971; Bajescu and Chiriac 1962, 1984; Lacatusu et al., 1981) and its deficiency induced by phosphate fertilisers use in Chernozems (Borlan et al., 1975; Hera and Davidescu, 1977) were investigated in our country.

This paper is an attempt to determine zinc distribution in clay, silt, and sand fractions and organic matter of some Oltenia soils.


Influenta mineralelor argiloase asupra populatiei de microorganisme din unele molisoluri din sudul Romaniei

Influence of clay minerals on the microorganism populations of some molisols from south of Romania

C. Craciun, Sorina Dumitru

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



The paper is an attempt of quantification of clay minerals influence on population of certain groups of microorganisms in six molisols from Romanian Plain, by the correlation of some biological indicators (number of bacteria, number of fungi) with some mineralogical (smectite and illite contents of clay fraction), physical (clay content, air porosity), and chemical (available potassium) parameters.

The established relationships between biological indicators and mineralogical parameters indicate that the bacteria and fungi number are closely related to the clay quality than to the clay quantity. The same relationship show that the biological indicators and illite clay content is a linear direct relation, while between the same biological parameters and the smectite clay content this linear relation is inverse. These relations are similar with those established between the same mineralogical parameters and physical (air porosity) and chemical (available potassium) indexes.

The obtained results show that the clay minerals can affect an entire array of factors, which, in turn, will influence the succession and proliferation of specific microbiota groups in a heterogeneous soil population.

Keywords: clay minerals – bacteria relations, clay minerals – fungi relations in soil.


Fertilizarea in cadrul unor sisteme de productie vegetala durabile. Reactia, capacitatea de tamponare a solului pentru reactie si structura cationilor bazici schimbatori

Fertilizer use in sustainable crop production systems. Soil reaction, buffering capacity of soil for reaction and structure of exchangeable basic cations

Z. Borlan, I. Gavriluta, Daniela Stefanescu

Gh. Beldiman, Daniela Dana, Dobrita Nebunelea



It is stated that base saturation status, reaction buffering capacity of soil are to be taken into account when judging the sustainability of soil-plant system for enduring crop production. This is true when having in mind all base-unsaturated soils. In the case of base-saturated ones, containing alkali earth carbonates, above mentioned properties are kept at a constant level by the virtue of the solubilisation and hydrolisation relationships of the carbonates in their interaction with water and clays.

Optimal domains of reaction and reaction buffering capacity of base-unsaturated soils are considered to correspond to a 95% base saturation of colloids, which is thought satisfactory for most of the crops.

Recommended lime application rates ought to maintain the soil at this level of base saturation. Several other aspects of the liming in the sustainable crop production systems such are the rates of lime needed for maintaining the soil at a 95% base saturation, timing of lime application, b ase saturation and pH evaluation in limed soils, use of dolomitic limestone instead of calcium containing materials in low-magnesium soils (containing less than 150 ppm MgAL), and others are also presented in the paper.

Keywords: base saturation, liming, reaction buffering capacity.


Luvisolurile albice in Romania

(Morfologia si pedogeneza)

Albic luvisols of Romania

(Morphology and pedogenesis)

H. Asvadurov

Institutul de Cercetari Pedologice si Agrochimice Bucuresti



The paper presents considerations regarding the pedological characteristics and some pedogenetical aspects of Romanian Albic Luvisols. It is a synthesis based on the information provided by the pedological studies of the last decades. There are described the characteristics of the subtypes of Albic Luvisols, included in the “Romanian Classification System – 1980”.

The work refers to the Albic Luvisols as polyphazic soils evincing intense weathering processes besides the clay migration process. Mention should be made of: 1. The albic horizon enriched in SiO2, deprived of R2O3, with exchangeable Al (higher content in the case of highly base depleted soils), with quartz minerals, and sometimes kaolinite, as well as clay minerals of the mica type, such as the aluminous vermiculite and/or the secondary chlorite; 2. Illuvial horizon, enriched in clay and relatively in oxydes with preferential illuviation of the smectite mineral, containing minerals of the hydrous mica group with interstratified mixed layers of the illite – chlorite, illite – vermiculite, illite – montmorillonite types.

The Alkali – Gleyc Albic Luvisol, with horyzons that are rich in Na+ and Mg2+ with exchange capacity, locally present a distinct genesis that is characteristic of the solodic soils.

The albic luvisols that were formed on sandy parent material present clay migration processes (with lamellae cemented with ferric oxydes) down to ferriluvic processes.

Keywords: characteristics of luvisols, luvisols genesis


Contributii la cunoasterea planosolurilor de pe interfluviul Valsan-Doamnei

Contributions to the knowledge of planosols from the Valsan-Doamnei Interfluve

C. Grigoras

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



The paper presents the main natural conditions of the Valsan-Doamnei interfluve which are favourable for planosols genesis.

On the first place is the climate which causes a percolative moisture regime into the soil but with an alternative waterlogging and watwe deficit. This leads in to an intensifying clay migration and ferrolysis processes. The waterlogging occurrence, a condition to develop the ferrolysis process, is caused by the presence of clayey deposits and by the horizontal or weak inclined relief.

The planosols are characterised by a strong textural differentiation of the soil profile which is the result of the clay migration and the clay destruction.

The geographical distribution shows that in the piedmont area the planosols are prevailing while in pericarpatic hills area their occurrence is more reduced.

Keywords: planosols, soils characterization, soil distribution.


Soluri cenusii in depresiunea Brasov

Greyzems in Brasov depression

N. Bacaintan, V. Prepelita

N. Cismasiu

Oficiul de Studii Pedologice si Agrochimice Brasov



Greyzems are considered zonal soil characteristic of eastern Europe forest steppe, they were formed under the deciduous forest where the oak tree is predominant. For a long time they have been recorded only at the Carpathians. Detailed pedological soil mapping of the last decade spotlighted the presence of the greyzems in Brasov depression, too. In this large intramountainous depression the greyzems occupy a narrow and discontinuous strip, at the altitude of 500-550 m, on the oak forest belt, on the lacustrine terraces. The greyzems evolved on medium noncalcareous loess-like deposits. Pedogeographically, they make the transition between the grey brown podzolic soils and chernozem-like soils. In Brasov depression the greyzems are found only on the land in crop. Their profile type si Ap-Ame-Btw-Cn. An argic-greic-stagnogleyied phaeoziom (SRTS, 2000/greyc phaeozem (WRBSR) is described and characterized in this paper.

Keywords: greyzem/greyc phaeozem, Brasov depression.


Microzonarea pedogeoclimatica a depresiunii Ciuc

Pedogeoclimatic microzoning of Ciuc depression

I. Rasnoveanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



Ciuc depression is located in the Oriental Carpathian Mountains, in the upper basin of Olt River, and has an area of 68.000 ha. Taking into account the climate, relief and soil, in Ciuc Depressions, 12 pedogeoclimatic microzone units were separated, numbered on the map from 1 to 12 and labelled by a formula on the map of pedogeoclimatic microzoning.

Microzone characterisation is given in the Annex 1, where climate, relief, soil and parent material were detailed, as well as land use, surface (in ha), the percentage of microzones participation (referred to the total surface of the depression), the improvement requirements and the types of agro-pedoameliorative works.

Keywords: Ciuc depression, pedogeoclimatic microzoning, mapping.



Scheme agro-ambientale in contextul dezvoltarii rurale

Agri-environmental schemes within rural development context


M. Dumitru, S. L. Stefanescu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti



Major changes occurred during last decade in EU agricultural policies, underlying the environmental objectives in a more integrated approach. Recently, programmes and projects have been developed to contribute to the integration of environmental issues into development planning in the EU candidate countries and to assist the EU acquis communautaire implementation.

One of the most important measure with in SAPARD Programme (Council Regulation – EC, 1268/1999) is devoted to stimulate agriculture production methods design to protect the environment and to maintain the countryside. The specific objectives of an agro-environmental scheme pilot proposal located in Tismana-Pestisani-Runcu, Gorj county, Romania, are briefly presented.

Keywords: rural development, agri-environment, environmental friendly practices


Despre unele aspecte privind relatiile dintre seceta, pedogeneza si degradarea terenurilor (desertificare)

Upon some aspects concerning the relationships between drought, pedogenesis and land degradation


I. Munteanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



The climatic drought influences the pedogenesis and soil properties, both directly by soil moisture regime aridification (water rarefaction) and indirectly by inducing important changes in soil forming processes and properties, e.g. slowing down or stopping lixiviation and biological activity, increasing carbonates and soluble salts accumulation, soil structure destruction, water holding capacity and soil porosity diminuation, soil pH increase etc. The climatic drought also affects the main soil ecological functions, e.g. soil as water reservoir, bio-productive capacity, filtering, buffering and transforming functions and biological habitat function.

The interrelations between climatic drought and soil/terrain degradation are complex and reciprocal. The central concept is that besides the normal interrelationships between soil-terrain system and the climatic system, there are also direct reciprocal influences of the perturbations that occur in each of them. Thus desertification is the result of both soil-terrain degradation and climatic aridification (fig. 3). The main soil and terrain degradation processes that contribute to amplifying both the edaphic and climatic drought are: vegetation cover degradation/destruction, water and wind erosion, soil structure destruction, soil compaction, soil crusting and sealing, soil salinization/sodicisation and soil pollution. In turn the climatic drought contributes to the enhancement of most of these degradation processes.

Keywords: drought, pedogenesis, desertification.


O schita de sistematizare a domeniului evaluarii terenurilor

An outline of systematization of the domain of land evaluation


V. Vlad

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti



The developments of land evaluation and its uses and the complexity of problems and methods used in this domain have led to non-systemic approaches of concepts and terminology. Based on an analysis (and with references to) a large number of existing approaches and methods of land evaluation, the paper outlines a systematization of the domain: the name and scope of the domain, the object of evaluation (the “land-use system”), type of evaluation from different points of view (scope, factors considered, evaluation precision, land unit scale, land use definition, evaluation purpose), the suitability, types of evaluation criteria, types of measures of evaluation criteria and suitability and types of evaluation methods from different points of view (generality/specificity, precision, evaluation technique/model).

Keywords: land evaluation, land suitability, land evaluation classification, land evaluation criteria, land evaluation methods, land use planning, land management.



Studiul pedologic document esential pentru caracterizarea mediului ambiant si fundamentarea dezvoltarii durabile – ganduri la 80 de ani –


Soil study, essential document for the environment characterization and sustainable development planning

Prof. dr. N. Florea



In Romania the thinking on soil changed from “arable earth (land)” or “vegetal earth” to “natural body”. The naturalistic thinking evoluated becoming pragmatic since 1950 and systemic since 1970. The present trend is to study the soil and soilscape integrated to the geographical spatial systems as information basis for the soil and environment necessary for the sustainable development. This trend entails the closeness between soil science and earth (and environment) sciences and also biologic, economical and social sciences.

In the natural system, a spatially functional entity of earth’s surface, the soil and relief (surface of land forms) have an apart position, the two components being indissoluble bound; they form a tandem soil-relief, named pedoterritory or pedoterrain.

Irrespective of name used for the spatial system units, their characterization has acquired a new orientation and significance in the context of the sustainable development.

The spatial (geographic) systems are best reflected by the features of the soil cover, which is the result of the environmental factors action and mirrors the geographical landscape. Studying adequately soils, the environment itself is studied too. In addition, soil cover represents a valuable indicator of the environment quality and its evolution, and affords criteria for an appropriate geographical regionalization.

The main objects of any environment study is to a large extent the same with the objects of any soil study. These objects cannot be adequately accomplished without soil cover knowledge. It is very useful now to extend the soil surveys as studies of spatial (terrestrial) systems in order to answer more efficiently to the questions of turning to good account of land resources.

The soil has to be studied not only as a distinct whole but also as component of a greater whole (ecosystem, geosystem, landscape etc.) integrating the soil studies with other environmental studies. By this approach the pedology will acquire a more practical feature and will be more involved in the environment problems and sustainable development.

On the other hand, the Environmental Geography has to strongly rely on Pedogeography.

Geografia mediului inconjurator ca stiinta integrativa trebuie sa se sprijine pe studiul invelisului de sol, deoarece acesta dezvaluie actiunea si interdependenta tuturor factorilor naturali si a celui antropic si ofera o imagine integrata despre mediu si criterii de delimitare a unitatilor teritoriale sistemice.


Realitatea obiectiva referitoare la mediul ambiant si organizarea acestuia este foarte complexa ; pe masura ce o studiem si o cunoastem mai bine ne dam seama cat de complicata este intr-adevar. Studierea separata a componentelor mediului ambiant este foarte utila pentru intelegerea unor aspecte sau procese particulare, dar numai cercetarea ca un intreg a mediului inconjurator este calea care ne conduce la cunoasterea complexa, inderdependenta, a resurselor teritoriale, la modul de utilizare si gestionare in diferite conditii de folosire, ca si la modul de prevenire a dezvoltarii unor fenomene negative sau de dirijare a evolutiei in sens favorabil.

Studiile pedologice si hartile de soluri insotitoare reprezinta un exemplu de abordare separata a unui component important al mediului geografic – invelisul de sol – dar care la noi in tara s-a realizat totusi in stransa corelatie cu ceilalti componenti ai mediului si integrat mediului.

Cuvinte cheie : evolutia gandirii despre sol, tandemul sol – relief (prioteritoriu, pedoteren), studiul pedologic cu studiu de mediu


Illite crystalinity of Romanian soils

Gh. Gata

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucuresti



Because of their selection and number the investigated soils appear to be representative for Romanian soils. The illite mineral quantities decrease in the same time with the increase of the clay contents and show that these minerals play the part of a diluent of the clay fraction smectite.

The three crystallinity indices include interne ordering of the atom plans in sheets stacking of layers and in the broken surfaces. The index values are different since each includes the four ordering factors in different proportions.

IA index increase with the particle size change a little during the oxidation processes and with interlamellar populations. These suggest that IA include prevalent the particle size and interne crystallinity.

IB index which correlated highly with the clay and illite contents had numerous values zero, varied much during the oxidation processes and changed with the interlamellar population. Hence this index appear to have prevalent the ordering in the broken surfaces.

IC index which correlated with the potassium content of the clay fractions decrease much with the particle size and with the changing of the interlammellar population and is modified moderately during the oxidation processes. Therefore it appear to include prevalent staking of the layer by interlammellar potassium.


Aspecte privind semnificatia mineralogica a caracteristicilor vertice pentru unele soluri

Aspects concerning the mineral significance of the vertic characteristics of some soils

C. Craciun, Victoria Mocanu, C. Lazar

Institutul de Cercetari petnru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti


This paper is a comparative mineralogical study of the clay from some cambic chernozems with and without vertic characteristics from Dobrudja (Romania). The paper contains also mineralogical data at the colloidal level for three soils with vertic characteristics from Romanian Plain, Tatarastii de Jos perimeter (vertic albic luvisol, vertic chromic luvisol, vertisol). In comparison with the nonvertic chernozem, those belonging to the vertic subtype indicate higer values for the clay content and smectite content of the clay.

In the Tatarastii de Jos perimeter, a comparison, from the point of view of smectite/illite ratio values, between the three soils with vertic characteristics, the parent material influence increases in the order of following sequence: vertic albic luvisol – vertic chromic luvisol – vertisol. The increase of the pedogenetic process intensity, in the same sequence, is reverse. For the vertic albic luvisol the high contents of clay and soils.

In the case of vertisols from Romania the smectite content of the clay appears more closely related from the clay content of vertisols from south part of the country comparative with vertisols from western part of the country. A possible explanation of such a relation could be given by the fact that an increase of the clay content could determine the appearance and existence of an environment with preservation characteristics (confined) which care favour the smectite minerals formation.

Keywords: vertisols, clay minerals, smectite minerals


Cercetari privind mineralogia fractiei grele din unele soluri brune roscate si brune argiloiluviale din Campia Vingai


Researches concerning the mineralogy of the heavy fraction of same reddish brown soils and argillic brown soils of Vinga Plain

Stela Uruioc

Universitatea Banatului Timisoara



Minerals from the heavy fraction frequently appear as grains with various roundness degrees, from subangular to subrounded; they are less frequent both in sol horizons and in the weathering crust. Heavy minerals have different distributions, both vertical (variations from one horizon to another) and horizontal (variations from a soil type to another). They are excellent “maturity indicators”, owing to their chemical and mechanical stability. The morphologic and dimensional study of the clasts, as well as the changes suffered were “indicators for the place of provenience”. The presence of angular and subangular clasts, but mostly that of idiomorphous crystal points to the fact that the source area was relatively close. The sediment evolution in the Vinga Plain has three phases: torrential, deltaic and pedogenetic

Keywords: heavy fraction, mineral, Reddish Brown soils, Argillic Brown soils, Vinga plain


Conservation of the biological diversity in Romanian farmland

M. Dumitru, I. Munteanu

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest


In Romania the agroecosystems occupy about 9.9 million ha (41.6% of the country) from which farmland represent cca. 9.4 million ha, orchards and vineyards including nurseries 0.5 million ha.

The relative richness of biological diversity occurring in the Romanian agroecosystems is illustrated by the animals and plants wild species number: 53 species of vertebrates, 6570 species of invertebrates and 640 plant species.

Among the main causes which negatively acted upon the biodiversity status of the agricultural zone one can mention:

-         extension of the arable lands on the account of the grasslands, shrublands and woodlands, followed by a severe intensification of soil erosion in the hilly area and dissected tableland regions;

-         development over the last 30 years of a large scale mechanised farming, with large sized plots (100-1000 ha);

-         execution of land improvement and hydrotechnical works which reduced drastically the area of wetland ecosystems;

-         development of irrigation systems over about of 1/3 of cropland area (3.2 mil ha);

-         industrial pollution;

-         inappropriate use of chemicals and inadequate technologies

The strategy for conservation of the biological diversity of the Romanian farmland ecosystem, aims to:

-         improve the biodiversity by reshaping and reorganising the agricultural landscape to bring it closer to the natural one;

-         conservation of the biodiversity by development of alternative systems of farming and agricultural landscape management to ensure a sustainable use of soil, water, climate and vegetation resources;

-         as far as possible recolonize the valuable plant and animal wild species already extincted;

-         conservation of the biodiversity by creating a subsystem of protected areas within the agricultural lands

-         protect the biodiversity of agroecosystems by special laws and regulations, absent at this moment.



Quantitative and qualitative distribution of microflora in petroleum and salty water polluted soils

Anca-Rovena Voiculescu, M. Dumitru, M. Toti, Gabriela Mihalache, Carolina Constantin

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry – Pollution Control Department



Aiming at microbiological characterisation of the petroleum and salty water polluted soils, a number of 117 soil profiles located in different Romanian areas around 13 oil derricks were investigated. The soil profiles proceeded from a great variety of soil types and subtypes affected, also by salinization in various degrees, from low to very high salt contents.

Microflora from these soils varied quantitatively in wide range due to a great number of factors: petroleum residues concentration, salt content, soil pH, available nutrients. The taxonomic structure of the microbial communities proved to be very “sensitive” against the petroleum residues concentration, the great majority of isolated bacteria and fungi being well known as biodecontaminants of petroleum polluted soils.



Influenta erbicidelor: Frontier Harness si Roundup Ready asupra dezvoltarii bacteriilor heterotrofe din solul brun roscat molic de la Moara Domneasca, judetul Ilfov cultivat cu porumb


The influence of herbicides: Frontier Harness and Roundup Ready on heterotrophic bacteria in mollic reddish brown soil cultivated with corn, from Moara Domneasca, Ilfov district


Gabriela Mihalache, Anca-Rovena Voiculescu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agronomie

Niculina Gheorghita, D. I. Sandoiu

Universitatea de Stiinte Agronomice si Medicina Veterinara Bucuresti



Experimental models were set up in laboratory conditions, the purpose being to establish the effects of herbicides : Frontier, Harness and Roundup Ready upton development of heterotrophic bacteria in mollic reddish brown soil.

The herbicides used was applied in three concentrations from each one.

All of tested herbicides were limiting factors for bacterial development (reflected in total bacterial number) in majority of treated variants, especially Harness herbicide at higher concentrations, respectively: 3l/ha and 6l/ha.

Pseudomonas sp. was frequently isolated from the majority of experimental variants independent of herbicide type.

That could be explained by a high survival potential and adjustment capacity of that species, and, may be, herbicides biodegradative abilities.

Keywords: herbicides, heterotrophic bacteria, mollic reddish brown soil.


Tufurile zeolitice si aplicarea lor experimentala in agricultura (sinteza studiilor efectuate in Romania)

Experimental application of zeolite tuffs in agriculture (a synthesis of Romanian studies)


H. Asvadurov, Ruxandra Bogaci

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



Studies of soil formed on tuffs about the identification of zeolites (clinoptilolite in particular) were affected for the first time in Romania in 1974-1975.

Below are mentioned several results of the experiments aiming to utilise tuffs in Romanian agriculture:

-         successful utilisation in pots and field of tuffs containing mainly K clinoptilolite for increasing the degree of potassium saturation and cation exchange capacity of soils; it was thus proved the stability of the tuffs crystal latice under the given pedoclimatic conditions;

-         improvement of potassium nutrition of cultivated plants but with lower yields as in case when soluble K salts are applied (on a constant level of N and P);

-         demonstration that potassium retention energy is higher in tuff latice than is in soil adsorbtive complex;

-         advantages of utilisation debasificated tuffs with nitric acid as amendment of saturated soils with basic cations, resulting in the pH diminuation and amelioration of P plant nutrition;

-         successful utilisation of tuffs acid extract in the composition of foliar fertilizers

-         possibility of utilising zeolite tuffs (especially those containing Na clinoptilolite) to retain ammonium nitrogen from fertilizers, in order to gradually release it into light textured irrigated soils.

Keywords: zeolite tuffs, clinoptilolite, agriculture, amelioration of soil and plant nutrition.


Caracterizarea solurilor forestiere formate pe substrate carbonatice din masivul Rarau

Forest soils formed on calcareous substrata of the Rarau massif


N. Geambasu

Institutul de Cercetari si Amenajari Silvice Bucuresti



Calcareous substrata occupy important areas of the Rarau massif and they are represented by limestones, dolomites, limy sandstones and marls. These are different ages, being the result of various paleogeographical evolution, with obvious prints on relief as well. Such substratum occurs from the lower to the upper part of the massif; they are not characteristic to a certain bioclimatic and respectively edaphoclimatic belt.

The forest vegetation is very various from the species composition and productivity point of view.

The soils formed on limestones, dolomites, limy sandstones make part of the Mollisols (being represented by cambic and lithic rendzinas, with mull, mull-moder, moder-raw humus), Argilluvisols (rendzinic-argillic soil) and Cambisols (Typical Brown Forest soil).

The calcareous substrata have different influences over soil forming processes; the limestones and dolomites generate Mollisols (Rendzinas) as a rule, while the clayey limeston and the limy sandstones have as result soils with mollic features (mollic subtype).

The climate has a great influence on the humus form and on some chemical-physical features, without the annulment the prevailing influence of the lithic substratum.


Cu privire la specificul conditiilor pedoclimatice si fenomenul de declin al padurilor din Campia Romana

Concerning to the specific of the pedoclimatical conditions and the decline phenomenon of the forest in the Romanian Plain

Constantin Rosu

Institutul de Cercetari si Amenajari Silvice



In the introductory part of the paper is make a general presentation of the decline phenomenon of the forests of the Romanian Plain, which is considered influenced by: the climatical conditions, specific for the last two decades; the modifications produced in the hydrological regime of the rivers (as a result of the hydrological works effected); the specific of the soils of the respective geographical space.

Taking into account of these conditions and factors specific of the geographical space mentioned had diferentiated 11 microzones (two in the forest zone of plain and nine in the forest steppe zone). In the units, different especially depending on the soils conditions (especially the texture, soil depth humus content, calcium carbonate content), the forests composition (the species nature).

The most stressed decline phenomenon and even drying has affected the cultures of euramerican pleopars placed on sandy soil and of those with fine texture. Strongly affected were also the acacia cultures, placed on sandy soils, slight humiferous and those on calcareous chernozem (especially those carbonate horizon which lies above of 50 cm depth).

A different case is formed of the stands of oak (Quercus frainetto): this species was affected by drying process on a wider scale of soils a great importance in the production of the phenomenon having also the development degree of the crown and of origin.

In general the mixed broad stands placed however on loomy soils had well resisted to the stresses of climatical and hydrological nature.

In conclusion, for the reconstruction of affected forests and for the prevention of the producing of such negative aspects in evolution, and to the species ecology and associations ecology of the species.



Effects of urban waste dumps in Glina-Bucharest upon environment

Radu Lacatusu, Beatrice Kovacsovics

Doina Plaxienco, Carolina Constantin,

S. Carstea, Mihaela Lungu

Mihaela Preda, Daniela Mihalache

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest, Romania


Model general de evaluare a amplasamentului terenurilor agricole

A general model for site evaluation of agricultural land

V. Vlad

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti



Land evaluation is the key action in land management. Multiple factors and multiple criteria are used in land evaluation. The paper presents a general model for evaluating some of the most important factors – the site characteristics of land. These are intrinsec characteristics of land (site accesss, size and form of parcel, etc.) that do not affect its productivity but only its economic suitability. The proposed model uses 9 partial indices corresponding to 9 characteristics taken into consideration: length of the equivalent road from the site to the market/supply centre, length of the equivalent road from the site to the farmhouse (farm buildings), difference between the site altitude and the market/supply centre altitude, difference between the site altitude and the farmhouse (farm buildings) altitude, site (parcel) size, site (parcel) form (shape), landform (microrelief) of the site (parcel), degree of covering the land with mole hills and stones and degree of covering the land with trees, brushes and stumps.

The influence of these characteristics is measured by the amount of the supplementary costs involved in land use comparatively with a reference site. The costs are estimated in percents of output (yield), which represent the partial indices. These indices are aggregated into a global index of site evaluation using an additive type model. Finally, some new aspects to be taken into account for improving the model are presented.

Keywords: site evaluation, land evaluation, land evaluation models, parametric models



2002 – vol 1

Great pedogeographic regions of the terrestrial Globe

N. Florea

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest



The great soil regions were delimitated taking into account the nature and distribution of soils on Earth’s surface caused by the repartition and evolution of the climatic, vegetation, geological and geomorphological conditions at global scale (reflecting also the influence of the Quaternary glaciations and lithosphere plate tectonics). The following great pedogeographic regions were distinguished: holoboreal, holotropical, fragmoarid and holoaustral, each region with several districts or subregions.

Keywords: great soil regions and subregions; terrestrial globe


Natural resources of the Danube floodplain


I. Piciu, N. Florea, I. Munteanu

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest

Carmen Dragota, I. Tecuci

National Institute of Meteorology, Hidrology and Water Management, Bucharest

H. Ioanitoaia, Viorica Barascu

Research and Technological Engineering Institute for Irrigation and Drainages, Baneasa-Giurgiu




The Danube floodplain is a physiographic unit of a great importance in the Romanian and European landscape. Under natural conditions, the Danube floodplain was the largest wetland area, after Danube Delta, characterized by predominance of swamps, reed beds and broad-leaved forest. At the same time it was a climatic regulator by mitigation of moisture content deficit and of the temperature amplitude characteristic of the dry regions to which it belongs.


A soil-management-yield system; case study for Fundulea-Ileana area

A. Canarache

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest



The relationships between land natural conditions, various management techniques, evaluation of soil productivity and estimation of actual crop yields are discussed. A kind of general system including such relationships, a more extended form of existing soil rating principles, with possible use in future decision support system, is presented. This general concept is exemplified by the situation in an area of southern Romania, the Fundulea-Ileana area, with a rather homogeneous soil cover. The main research institute specialised in field crops is present in this area, and consequently there is a large number of results from various field experiments, laboratory analyses and modelling. This makes possible a good knowledge of the various agricultural practices on soil properties, with consequences of a medium or longer duration on soil productivity, as well as the direct effects of these agricultural practices on crop yields. Major weather variations from year, characteristic for the climate of this part of the country, and a detailed analysis of its effects on crop yields, are considered necessary for further research.

Keywords: soil rating, soil productivity, yield estimation.


Evaluation of the natural ecopedological conditions in South-Western Romania as regards of production capacities


D. Tarau

Pedological and Agrochemical Studies Office Arad

Gh. Rogobete

Polytechnical University Timisoara

I. Borza

University of Agricultural Sciences, Timisoara

I. Pusca

Agricultural Researches Station Lovrin

G. Fomitescu

Politechnical University Timisoara




The paper presents the main aspects concerning the main limiting and restrictive factor representative for soils’ quality from the southwest part of Romania, with a total area of approximately 2.5 million ha. The diversity of physic geographical conditions determined the forming of various soils, from chernozem in the forest steppe to podzols in the mountain area. The soil’s quality restrictive factors are the following: the humidity excess and deficiency (28.60%), salinity (14.68%), alkalisation, soil acidity, nutrients deficiency (52.30%), erosion and local land slides (39.39%), pollution etc. These factors brought to soil’s quality decrease in different proportions. At the end, the paper presents the main measures to bring to an optimal level the main limiting and restrictive factors that contribute to the agriculture and forest yields.

Keywords: soil unity, limiting factors, monitoring resources, long term development.


The change of some properties of haplic luvisol from the hilly areas of Cluj function of soil tillage systems


Gus P.

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj Napoca

T. Rusu

Faculty of Agriculture, Cluj Napoca



Human action upon soil by tillage determines important morphological, physical-chemical and biological changes, with different intensities and evaluative directions. To understand these changes, positive or negative, and their effects on the next evolution of tilled soils is the main purpose of this work.

Basic characteristics as: structure, humus content, physical indexes in the case of haplic luvisol are changing, depending on the type and intensity of tillage and crop. The changes are reversible in the meaning that soil tends to return to the initial status if the destructive factors do not exceed the normal limits. The results of a three years crop rotation, in the fields of the Didactic Experimental of University Agricultural Sciences from Cluj Napoca are presented.

The agrochemical properties change under the influence of the soil tillage system more or less depending on the system’s intensity, on the aspect of ploughing depth, turned off the soil or not, on the kind of fertilizers and quantity used. These characteristics are more dynamic such as: the content of mobile phosphorus, the content of alkaline ions, which has rapidly changed after the first year of tillage.

The state of physical settlement of the soil expressed through the apparent density (A. D.) calculated annually as an average of the determinations on phenophase shows that in all years of experiments a better mellow on the 0-20 cm depth at variants were observed when the plough is used (A. D. = 1.0-1.38 g/cm3). Beneath the depth of 20 cm the soil remains slightly ram with medium values (A. D. = 1.4-1.45 g/cm3). It was shown the stratification on the soil’s profile from the point of view of settlement state, through the existence of a layer that can be ploughed (through the energetic tillage).

The advantages of unconventional soil tillage systems can be taken into account as improved methods in weak productive soils with reduced structure stability on slope fields and as a measure of preserving the soils on the rest of the surfaces.


Soil genesis and chaos theory

I. Munteanu

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest



“Chaos” is the term that designates “…the irregular and unpredictable evolution of many non-linear systems…Its central characteristic is that the system does not repeat in past behaviour even approximately”. The necessary conditions for a chaotic motion are:

  1. the system has at least three independent variables
  2. the equation of motion contains a non-linear term that couples several variables

In the case of soil, the relief, time and parent material may be considered as the independent variable, while the climate as the non-linear term.

Some laws of chaos theory, like the “sensitivity to/and forgetting of initial conditions” may explain the soil cover variability in situations where the state factors are actually apparently uniform. The fact htat we can never find two soil profiles perfectly identical is possible the consequence of small differences in initial conditions (e.g. local relief variations, small differences in texture etc.), presently “forgotted” – wiped out; similar causes may trigger the development of Bt horizons, abrupt textural changes or other important soil characteristics.

The law of “time and chaos” states that in a process of nature (i.e. the soil development) the time between significant events expands or contracts along with the amount of chaos. This explains why in a crude parent material with high entropy (e.g. loess) the development of a profile with Bt horizon takes much more time than in the case when one starts from a soil with cambic B horizon (with lower entropy).

Because the behaviour of almost all spatial soil properties is close to the chaotic, the paper argues the necessity of using of fractal geometry concepts to describe and characterize soils.

In conclusion, the chaos theory may allow us to introduce the idea that the soil “gets order through fluctuations” and that the soil development is mainly a stochastic process and not a strictly deterministic one.


Fungal diversity and community structure in degraded and non-degraded Quercus suber ecosystems from Mas Bassets – Spain

Gabi-Mirela Matei, S. Matei

I. Seceleanu, Alexandra Vasu

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest



The species diversity and community structure of soil fungi in two Quercus suber forest ecosystems from Mas Bassets, Spain, were compared. The number of species recorded was of 22 for the community of the soil in the medium productive foreste ecosystem and 19 for the community of the soil in the low productive forest ecosystem.

The fungal diversity was higher in the first ecosystem (H’=2.310) and decreased to H’=2.195 under the stress conditions in the low productive ecosystem. The equitability was I=0.75 for both sites. Frequency distribution is heterogenous, with many species, including few individuals and small percentage of abundant species. Variations in species composition and diversity are noted as possible factors influencing the effect of fungi assemblage on nutrient dynamics in the soil.

Keywords: fungal community structure, diversity, frequency distribution, forest ecosystem.


Soil pollution with cyanides and heavy metals in the Baia Mare area; ecological reconstruction


R. Lacatusu, S. Carstea,

Mihaela Lungu, Beatrice Kovacsovics, Rodica Lazar

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Bucharest

A. Bretan, Viorica Iancu

Office for Pedological and Agrochemical Studies, Baia Mare



The results of the research carried out one year after the Baia Mare ecological accident (30.01.2000), which led to soil (25 ha) and water pollution with industrial waste water from the mud-settling pond of S.C. Aurul S.A., loaded with cyanides and heavy metals, are presented. Chemical analyses carried out on a big number of soil samples (511) collected from soil profiles, down to 1 m, and from the topsoil pointed out that the soils were severely polluted with heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn). Cyanide concentration is low, below the value of the warning threshold for sensitive soil use. For the ecological reconstruction mechanical works (draining on ¼ of the area, 20-30 cm deep ploughing), acid soil liming and organic and mineral fertilisation are recommended. Soil should be better afforested with species taking up heavy metals, but, under a strict control of the heavy metals in crops, other plants could be grown as well.

Keywords: soil, pollution, cyanides, heavy metals, ecological reconstruction.


Requirements for the decision support systems for land management

Virgil Vlad

Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry (ICPA) Bucharest



Land management must go on as a decision process, respectively as an iterative sequence of well-defined steps. Its general objective is the sustainable use of land as defined by FAO (simultaneous achievement of productivity, production security, land/environment protection, economic viability and social acceptability).

The concept fo “land-use” system helps the system analysis of the problems and process of land management. Important characteristics of land management (data uncertainty, knowledge uncertainty, uncertainty related to the management process, multi-criteria decisions, multiple complexity of problems and solving methods) make it a “poor-structured problem” and, consequently, it must be helped by using an appropriate class of computer applications – the decision support systems (DSSJ).

A DSS for sustainable land management must put into practice some important requirements: (a) functional requirements (the decision-maker must be included in the system as the main and final actor in the decision-making process and, consequently, the DSS must be strongly interactive; the DSS must support the decision-maker for structuring the problem in all steps of the decision process, including information acquisition, identification/definition of the problem, establishing the variants/options, establishing the appropriate evaluation and multi-criteria decision models, monitoring and revising the decisions etc.; complex data bases and “models bases” – containing different data and models for land evaluation, multi-criteria decision-making and for the decision process – are necessary etc.), (b) operating requirements (flexibility, reliability/security, ease in use, adaptability etc.) and (c) implementation requirements (integration of different information technology methods/techniques; the DSS must be an “open system” and the prototyping method must be used for development; besides the traditional disciplines, many other “auxiliary” disciplines must participate in the DSS design).

The concepts developed are applied in the design of the decision support system for the agricultural land management in the Romanian conditions. The general structure of this system (named “DexTer”) is given: communication (user interface) subsystem, knowledge (models base and data bases) subsystem and problem solving (decision process model) subsystem.

Keywords: land management, decision support systems, decision support systems for land management, decision process, land-use system, uncertainty, poor-structured problems, functional requirements, operating requirements, implementation requirements, Romania.


Influence of clay quantity and quality on some physical properties of grey soils in Romania

C. Craciun, C. Lazar

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest

M. Dana

Dacrom Primex SRL, Bucharest



The paper is an attempt to quantify the influence of clay minerals on the physical settling state indexes of some Grey soils (Greyzems – FAO) in Romania.

The identified clay minerals in these soils were illite, smectite and kaolinite.

The established linear relationships between physical indexes and illite on one hand and the same relation involving smectite, on the other hand, are contrary. Thus relations of smectite content are direct with bulk density and degree of compaction and inverse with the porosity (total and air). In the case of illite content, the established relationships are contrary, as compared to smectite.

Taking into consideration the values of correlation coefficients, the settling state indexes appear more related to the clay quality (mineralogical composition) than to the clay quantity.

In all the cases, the relationships between physical indexes and clay content were similar with those where the smectite minerals were involved, suggesting that the smectite minerals are fundamental concerning the clay influence on the physical properties of the investigated soils.

Keywords: soil clay minerals, mineralogy of grey soils, soil physical indexes – clay minerals relations


Vulnerability to heavy metal pollution of the Romania’s soils


Nicolae Florea

Academy of Agricultural and Forest Science, Bucharest

Gheorghe Ianos

West University of Timisoara



Firstly, the authors discuss the soil properties which determine the soil vulnerability to heavy metal pollution and which can be obtained from soil maps.

Then, they define the evaluation criteria of the soil vulnerability to heavy metal pollution and its classes and subclasses.

At the end, the Romania soils are grouped in classes and subclasses of vulnerability to heavy metal pollution and on this basis the map of Romania with the soil vulnerability to pollution with heavy metals was prepared.

In Romania, the soil vulnerability situation is approximately the following: very slightly and slightly vulnerable – 26%, moderately vulnerable – 42%, strongly vulnerable – 10% and very strongly vulnerable – 21%.

Keywords: soil vulnerability, pollution, heavy metals, classification.


Simulation model predicting the effects of topsoil loads on the soil agrophysical state

C. Simota, E. Dumitru, R. Enache

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest

R. Horn, H. Fleige

Institute for Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, CAU Kiel, Germany

De la Rosa D., F. Mayol

Instituto de Recurcos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla, Spain

A. Dexter, E. Czyz

Institut Uprawy Nawizwinia i Gleboznawstwa, Pulawy, Poland

K. Rajkaj

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Budapest, Hungary



Soil compaction processes affect to a great extent sustainable land use inducing onsite and offsite damages. The determination of the interrelations of soil agro-physical properties and compaction requires very detailed analysis as well as the definition of prevention methods that have also to include the mechanical and hydrological aspects.

The newly developed model SIDASS can be used to predict changes in the agro-physical soil state due to mechanical and hydraulic processes and it also enables users to stimulate prevention strategies if the required basic datasets are available.

SIDASS is based on some precise datasets from specific areas, and is able to forecast the effects of soil mechanical processes like soil deformation on soil water- and air-related parameters and it may be also used to couple the effects of hydraulic and mechanical processes. Thus in its final stage it provides a tool for recommendations of site-specific land use and management strategies. Due to its indirect methods estimating pedo-transfer functions, SIDASS is able to estimate the key soil parameters for soil compaction for various tillage practices from the soil data available from standard soil survey studies.

Therefore, SIDASS model could be applied at regional and continental scale evaluating the effect of agriculture policies. In the validation tests, the predicted values according to the model equations were in very good agreement with independent datasets takend from experimental fields in Spain, Hungary and Romania. The application examples (GIS maps) with reference to Romania soils show the maximum loads on soil surface for a sustainable land use.

Keywords: soil compaction, pedo-transfer function, simulation model, sustainable land use and management.


Micromorphology of spodic horizons of the podzols from Bucegi and Cibin mountains


Ioana Taina

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry


The aim of this paper is the interpretation of the micromorphological aspects determined by the iron-humic podzolization process, in a series of Podzols from Bucegi and Cibin mountains.

Thin sections of sixteen representative Iron-Humus Podzols, Iron Podzols, Brown Podzols, and Iron Brown Soils profiles from two areas located at 1750-2200 m altitude (corresponding to the lower alpine belt) in the Bucegi and Cibin Mountains were analysed from the micromorphological point of view.

Both types of diagnostic pedological features – illuvial amorphous organo-mineral coatings and amorphous pellets – were found in the spodic horizons of the analysed soils.

The presence of different types of illuvial material, the age of this material, as well as the variation of the environmental conditions are considered responsible for the diverse aspect of the illuvial coatings in the studied Podzols. The coatings with a great content of organic matter show a monomorphic aspect and a dark colour. These coatings occur mainly in the soils covered with wooden vegetation. The coatings formed under the influence of herbaceous plant cover are made of light polymorphic materials contaminated with silt sized skeleton grains. In this case, the intensity of the podzolization process is lower. Discolouring of the illuvial material have been observed to the aged coatings of some covered Podzols.

The illuvial material can be in situ enriched in iron compound by the covering and impregnation of the materials resulted by the weathering of ferromagnesian minerals. The content of the organic matter in the illuvial coatings can increase by the superposition of the illuvial material on the decayed root fragments as well.

A peculiar aspect is the forming right in the Bs horizon of the organo-mineral complexes by the combination of the products resulted from the weathering of the ferromagnesian minerals with organic substances resulted from the decay of the roots and micro-organisms penetrated in the cracks of the rock fragments.

There is a close relationship between podzolization, micro-organisms’s activity and biochemical weathering: the organo-mineral coatings deposited in the fissures of the skeleton grains favour the development of the fungi that contribute to the weathering of the minerals by their activity.

The pellets form either by micro cracking of the matrix and illuvial organo-mineral coatings, or by faunal activity. Only the pellets resulted from the cracking of the illuvial iron-humic coatings reflects the presence of the podzolization and can be considered indeed a diagnostic feature.

Keywords: micromorphology, Bs horizons, illuvial organo-mineral coatings, pellets, mineral and biotic factors.


2002 – vol 2

Implicatiile mineralelor in rizosfera

Minerals implications within the rhizosphere


C. Craciun

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti



Implications of minerals in the functions of rhizosphere is given, firstly, by the influence of certain mineralogical components (clay minerals and Al and Fe-sesquioxides) on the soil structure and on the setting of soil particle and structural elements. This influence si active at the level of all roots functions. Mobility and availability of nutrients in the rhizosphere perimeter must be considered as complex function conditioned by the mineral components interactions with the other soil components (organics and organisms). In these interactions, the mineral part of the soil plays the role of potential reserve of nutrients, whose bioavailability is depending on the activity of the biotic and abiotic factors and also on their interactions with mineralogical compounds. The effects of interactions between soil minerals and roots are influenced by the nature and characteristics of both, mineralogical components and exudates of the root system. Thus, clay minerals have a major implication in the K+ and NH4- status in soil, while the status of soil P is strong related by the sesquioxides minerals.

Keywords: rhizosphere, clay minerals-roots interactions, Al, Fe sesquioxides-roots interactions.


Influenta fertilizarii diferentiate – la sol si foliar – asupra graului de toamna

The influence of differentiated – soil and foliar – fertilization at the winter wheat


M. Rusu, I. Oroian

Marilena Marghita,

Laura Paulescu

Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Cluj-Napoca



The vertic clay-illuvial chernozem with high content of clay (over 50.0%) in the edaphic useful volume horizons, high cationic exchange capacity (over 45-55 me./100 g soil) medium content of humus and low content of mobile phosphorus create conditions of significant efficiency of complex fertilizations applied at winter wheet. Differentiated fertilizations applied on soil, in NP, NPK; NP+Mo+Cu and NPK+Mo+Cu combinations, supplemented with foliar fertilizers (Folifag and Urea), allow to obtain constant grain productions of 4.5-6 tons, at winter wheat.

Complex fertilizations applied prove positive interactions between those used out of root and those applied on soil, and also application of microelements associated with primary macro elements (NPK), and their correctness is found positively in relevant indices of nutrition and plants quality.

Keywords: mineral fertilization, macro- and microelements, foliar fertilizers.


Unele probleme ale folosirii microelementelor in sistemele de fertilizare

Some problems in using microelements in fertilization systems

M. Rusu, Marilena Marghitas,

I. Oroian, Laura Paulette,

C. Balutiu, M. I. Oltean

Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Cluj Napoca



The role of microelements is undeniable in realizing qualitative and quantitative increases, especially when fertilization aim is to applied optimum doses (agrochemical and economical) and the balance between essentially and primary macroelements (NPK) is stable enough.

The presence of microelements in fertilization systems is requested, in generally by the measure of prevent their insufficiency (or lack) by some specificity in plaid nutrition and necessity of nutrients, or by the natural or technological conditions which can disadvantage their chemism and their inclusion in the soil-plant system.

Keywords: macroelements, microelements, fertilization


Un model general de evolutie continua ciclica a alternantelor de loessuri si soluri fosile in regiunile periglaciare in cuaternar

A model of continuous and cyclic evolution of the loess – fossil soil successions in the periglacial region during the quaternary


N. Florea

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



The model of formation and evolution of the Quaternary successions of loess and fossil soils is based on the concept of the continuous, cyclic and concomitantly development, but at opposite rate, of the processes of eolian sedimentation and pedogenesis in the periglacial zones correlated with the cyclicly spatial modification of the position of the glacier and climatic conditions.

A cycle of evolution begins with an intensive phase of silt sedimentation and a weak soil-formation in arid climatic conditions (Calcisols, Kastanozems), that leads to the loess formation (due to eolian acretion of the soil and transformation in loess of the lower part of the soil).

In the next phase, in the subarid – subhumid climatic conditions, the eolian sedimentation decreases but soil genesis increases reaching to Chernozems or Cambisols formation while the loess formation becomes very slight. In the last phase, when climatic conditions become warm and humid, the eolian acretion becomes insignificant and the soil develops to Luvisols; these soils have often Bt horizon reddish or red and other times stagnic features (periglacial features could appear during rapidly transition to the very cold and arid phase).

Complete successions of loess and fossil soil are recorded only in the periglacial areas that were subjected to climatic oscillations from arid to humid conditions during the Quaternary. In the areas with insignificant climatic oscillations one can find either loess or soil with Bt horizon if the climate remained either arid or humid during the glacial-interglacial (stadial-interstadial) cycles.

The interpretation of the loess-fossil succesions of a certain site has to take into account the geographical position of the site as against the glacier and the variation of the climatic conditions in time of that site (according to the schemes presented).

The different types of fossil soils can be used as stratigraphical (chronological) reference layer only for the small areas characterised by the same climatic oscillation during the Quaternary.

The presented model, based on the data for the continental periglacial conditions, can be applied also to other regions with successions of loess – fossil soils, adapting it to each region on the same conceptual basis.

Keywords: loess-fossil soils, continuous and cyclic evolution, Quaternary, loess formation.


Pollution due to fertilizers and pesticides

R. Lacatusu, M. Dumitru, Beatrice Kovacsovics

Doina Plaxienco, I. Rasnoveanu, Mihaela Lungu,

Daniela Mihalache, Mihaela Preda

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest



Annual researches carried out, for three years in each of the two vegetable growing areas, Vidra and Branesti-Islaz, located south and east of Bucharest, highlighted an obvious soil, water an vegetables pollution with nitrates and organochlorinated insecticides (HCH and DDT). Chaotic administering and non-controlled rates of mineral and organic fertilizers and organochlorinated insecticides determined the average accumulation of nitrate contents which exceed with 61% and 20% the normal content interval values in the soils of Branesti-Islaz and Vidra areas, respectively. The average HCH and DDT residues level, as compared to the maximum allowable limit value (0.1mg.kg-1) was 3.4 times higher in the soils of Vidra area and over 5 times in the soils of both areas. The average nitrates and organochloride insecticides contents of the ground water in both areas was up to 11.5 times, respectively 27 times higher for HCH and 3.2 times higher for DDT. The vegetables (dill, lovage, lettuce, cabbage) grown on polluted soils mainly irrigated with ground water loaded with such pollutants, accumulated nitrates and organochlorinated insecticides up to content levels exceeding maximum allowable limits with up to 105% for nitrates and up to 8.8 times for the α-HCH + β-HCH amount.

Keywords: pollution, fertilizers, nitrates, pesticides, vegetables, consummer’s health


Cincizeci de ani de studii pedologice si agrochimice detaliate in Romania

Fifty years of soil survey and soil testing in Romania


Luca Savopol


The development is presented of large scale (1:10.000) and soil testing in this country in the last half century. A short discussion of earlier achievements relates on the first soil maps (1885), the first soil sample analyses (1900), of the establishment of the first soil survey department (1906), of the publication of the first small scale map (1911) and of the beginning of experiments on fertilisers (1916). Large scale soil survey of agricultural land started in 1951, and soil testing in 1958, both within the Ministry of Agriculture. Since 1973 this work is carried on by 37 county Soil Survey and Soil Testing Offices, subordinated administratively to the local Agriculture Boards, and technically to the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry. Developments in methodology are described: use of aerial photographs, introduction of soil evaluation and of recommendations related to soil management, soil improvement and soil pollution, establishment of a soil database, digitation of medium scale soil maps etc. Methodologies of soil survey and soil testing have been published in several versions. Up to 1975 practically the entire agricultural area of the country was surveyed, and two synthetical reviews of these results have been published. Since that time updating of existing soil survey was performed on more than one third of that area. Soil testing was performed two to five times on various agricultural areas. In the last 10 years, monitoring of the quality of soil resources is being done, and annual reports are published.


Cincizeci de ani de studii si cercetari pedologice si agrochimice in vestul Romaniei

Fifty years of soil survey and agrochemical researches in west part of Romania


D. Tarau, OSPA Arad

Gh. Ianos, Universitatea de Vest Timisoara



The pedological studies and researches activity from West Romania is connected to soil science founding that has been illustrated on the first maps made in our country  by Gh. Munteanu, Petre Enculescu, Pache Protopopescu, Gh. Ionescu Sisesti, or the ones made by Constantin Chirita (1940) in Banatului Mountains.

The first activities of soil survey were conducted in 1951 under the guidance of professors I. Staicu and C. V. Oprea. They have guided an important number of pedologists and agrochemists, who at their turn become the authors of valuable studies and researches in the field, or directors of institutions and professors.

Starting with 1958, based on a nucleus formed of specialists (of different but complementary specialties) very well instructed a pedological and agrochemical laboratory is founded in Timisoara (one of the seven laboratories of the first Territory Organization Centers) as an answer to the urgent needs in this field.

In 1970, the actual Pedological and Agrochemical Researches Institute (ICPA, Bucharest) is founded under which guidance the two aspects of soil studying at county level the pedological and agrochemical studies are reunited as Pedological and Agrochemical Laboratories (1970). These ones in 1975 were reorganized as County Pedological and Agrochemical Studies Offices (in West Romania there are five offices at Timisoara, Deva, Arad, Oradea and Satu Mare) representing a new quality level. They are directly involved in the agriculture problem amplifying the soil studies through introducing the agricultural land evaluation and technical characterization.

No matter the pedology or agrochemistry were regarded as separate specialties or reunited under some institutions the activity in these fields has always been ascending giving a real and effective support for agriculture production in the knowledge and land resources capitalization area.

Although, after 1990, these offices suffered some problems generated by the social-economical hard times of transition, they have continued their 50 years tradition of pedological and agrochemical assistance.

These years have enriched the Romanian agriculture science offering the agriculture and silviculture production a strong base for the vegetal and animal yield increase, knowledge used by real professionals.


Cincizeci de ani de cercetari pedologice si agrochimice in Transilvania

Fifty years of soil survey researches in Transsylvania

V. Miclaus, P. Gus, M. Rusu

Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Cluj-Napoca




The paper presents the main achievements gained by Romanian soil survey specialists on researches carried since 1951 in Transsylvania, as well as the limitations and constraints encountered in the field work or due to existing methodological, juridical or financial gaps. A special attention is given to the problem of soil erosion that affects the lands of Transsylvania in a great extent. A set of recommendations was prepared in order to improve the soil survey’s quality and to increase the impact of the soil survey on the overall farming practices and farmers’ benefits.


Hartile de soluri la scara mica si mijlocie

Soil maps at medium and small scales

N. Florea

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



In the first page of the paper, the soil maps system achieved in Romania is presented. This system consists of soil maps at different scales (1:2.000.000 to 1:200.000 and 1:100.000), soil regionalization maps, factorial or correlative maps, and interpretive soil maps. In the last time the set of interpretative soil maps was largely diversified (table 1).

The concept of soil and the orientation in the soil survey evoluated in time from the agronomic or geological thought to naturalistico-genetic thought and then to ecosystemic and whollistic one (table 2).

Nowadays, the soil is regarded as complex territorial subsystem having a specific spatial organisation, very important for the geographical territorial system (ecosystem, geosystem).

The soil has to be studied both as natural body (natural resource entity included) and as component of the territorial systems (ecosystems, geosystems). In this way, the soil survey becomes essential for the environment characterisation and sustainable land development.


Starea agrochimica a solurilor din Romania

Soils agrochemical state in Romania

M. Dumitru

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



The paper performs and in-deep analyze of the present state of soil features, land suitability and capability in Romania and lists the major sources of pollution affecting the soil potential fertility. The figures and existing situation is discussed in comparison with world-wide similar statistics. The dynamic of the chemical and organic fertilizers consumption in Romanian agriculture since 1950 is presented, emphasizing a dramatic picture of the present state of the low inputs use and the need of urgent policies to be developed to reduce the continuous nutrients depletion in the soils that occurs within the last decade at national level.


Orientari posibile ale studiilor pedologice in Romania

Possible orientations of soil surveys in Romania

I. Munteanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



The present-day problems of the soil survey activity in Romania are:

  1. Review and updating of the existing soil survey metodology 1987, to match the new  challenges of soil resources management imposed by environment protection, global climate change etc.
  2. Modernising the field soil survey operations by introducing high-tech tools (Global Positioning Systems – GPS, Ground Penetrating Radar – GPR, Seismic Refractometry – SR).
  3. Large scale use of informatics in processing and interpreting soil survey data.
  4. All kinds of soil survey studies whatever the scale, have to be organised as data bases compatible to GIS requirements.

Keywords: soil survey studies, database


Evaluarea conditiilor naturale si a celor induse antropic sub aspectul definirii capacitatii de productie a terenurilor din Vestul Romaniei

Assessment of natural and human induced conditions concerning the production capacity of the lands from West part of Romania

Tarau D., Borza I.**, Pusca I.**, Tarau Irina******

Vlad H.*, Jurcut T.***, Jampa A.****, Florea M.*, Adam I.*****

*OSPA Arad, **ASAMVB Timisoara, ***OSPA Bihor,

****OSPA Hunedoara, *****ICAS Timisoara, ******OSPA Timisoara


This paper presents some aspects regarding the Western Romania land resources evaluation, resources that sum up and area of 3.957.344 ha.

There are shortly presented the main physiographic characteristics of the area referring especially to the soil components and to the soil restrictive characteristics.

There are also emphasized the changing tendencies of the natural energy and water resources, the vegetal cover and the soil resources.

The end of this paper is reserved to the general measures that should be taken in order to have a lasting management of soil resources, of general environment conditions characteristic to the analyzed area, in a world exposed to pollution and numerous energetic and food crises.


Cercetari referitoare la poluarea apelor datorita activitatilor agricole in Banat

Researches concerning the natural waters pollution due to agricultural activity in Banat county


I. Borza

Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole a Banatului Timisoara



The intensive agricultural system carried within the last decades of the XXth Century in Romania, including the wide use of synthetic fertilizers, pest control chemicals and industrial scale livestock keeping, led to an increase of the overall agricultural production but also to related environmental negative impacts, affecting mainly the surface and groundwaters as downhill receptors of the pollutants (nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, organic and pest control residues etc.). The water pollution process caused by agricultural practices has been emphasized by research activities performed and published after 1990, by collecting data on 20-25 years of cumulative pollution effects.

Keywords: agriculture, chemical inputs, fertilizers and pesticides, waste water, organic substances, pollution, surface water, ground water.


Radioactive pollution in the limitrophe zone of sterile stockpile in Caras Severin county – Romania

Poluare radioactiva in zone limitrofe haldelor de steril din judetul Caras-Severin, Romania


Gh. Rogobete*, D. Beutura**, R. Bertici**

*Universitatea Politehnica din Timisoara

**Oficiul pentru Studii Pedologice si Agrochimice Timisoara



The civilized world is at present threatened by the ecological and economic crisis of the industrial society, caused by the unrestrained exploitation of the nature, which lead sometimes to unrecoverable damage.

The main land degradation phenomena and processes in Banat are:

-         surface erosion, on 193,890 ha

-         moderate and excessive acidity, on 255,931 ha

-         typical pollution processes generated by: used waters and dejections, decanting pools, ballast – pits and quarries etc., hane lead to the exclusion from the agricultural circuit of a surface of about 10,000 ha

-         the pollution with heavy metals has been detected in a few areas (Resita, Otelu Rosu, Moldova Noua)

-         the most important results obtained from radioactive measurements are: at school Ciudanovita 40-60 cps, on the sterile material 3000-5000 cps, stones of the access road 3000-6000cps

Keywords: degradation, erosion, pollution, compaction, dejections, heavy metals, radioactive


2003, vol. XXXVII, nr. 1-2


S. Carstea – Solul si calitatea alimentelor

N. Florea – Pedoterenul, un concept integrat de sol si teren

I. Munteanu – Consideratii asupra aplicarii conceptelor de echilibru si neechilibru la sistemele de soluri

A. Canarache – Contributia cercetarii pedologice in activitatea de studii, proiectare si exploatare a lucrarilor de imbunatatiri funciare

N. Florea – Soil criteria for a soil cover consistent partition at a global and regional level

C. Craciun, Mihaela Lungu, M. Dana – Influenta cantitatii si calitatii argilei asupra starii de asezare a unor cernisoluri din Campia Romana

G. Gata, A. Mihailescu, Elena Bugeag – Distribution of total Nickel in Oltenia soils

Ioana Taina, Daniela Raducu, I. Seceleanu – Organizarea constituentilor minerali ai vertisolurilor din interfluviul Olt Vedea

M. Rusu, Marilena Marghitas, Augusta Lujerdean, I. Oroian, Laura Paulette – The Agrochemical Improvement of Soil in the Context of Sustainable Agriculture

I. Piciu, N. Florea – Soil cover partition of Europe and Romania territories based on soil criteria

D. Tarau, I. Borza, Irina Tarau, H. Vlad, D. Dologa, T. Jurcut – Mediul natural, cadru structural si functional in definirea factorilor edafici in Vestul Romaniei

V. Vlad – Consideratii privind bonitarea cadastrala a terenurilor agricole si baza de date a cadastrului calitativ agricol

Workshopul “Reabilitarea solurilor poluate”


N. Florea – Podgoriile si vinurile Romaniei


D. Davidescu – La a 70-a aniversare a zilei de nastere a unui prahovean de marca Prof. Dr. Doc. Cristian Hera


A. Contrea – Prof. Dr. Doc. Pompei Liviu Muresanu, initiator al studiilor de agrochimie si biochimie a solurilor din partea de vest a Romaniei

In memoriam

C. Hera – Dr. Doc. Zenoviu Borlan

V. Nimigeanu – Prof. Dr. Ing. Gheorghe Lupascu


Solul si calitatea alimentelor


Soil and food quality

Stelian Carstea

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice



The food of good quality is a fundamental condition of food security, depending, firstly on the quality of agricultural products, but not less on the quality of the soils where they are obtained. Of course, by its irreplaceable role and functions in agricultural production, the soil constitutes the crucial system of sustaining the life on the earth, and, as it really stated in the first article of the European Soil Charter, issued by the European Committee in Strasbourg (1972), it is “one of the precious assets of humanity”.

Unfortunately, the agricultural systems applied at present and known under the generic name of “conventional agriculture”, besides the valuable contributions to the social and economic progress, caused also serious damages, sometimes irretrievable, to the quality of soil and environment. At present, almost 90 per cent of the soils are affected, more or less, by one or more harmful phenomena and processes all over the world.

The analysis of soil impact on the food quality emphasizes both its negative role in affecting the food quality when it is unsuitable for food production, and its irreplaceable contribution in obtaining the food of adequate quality when it is managed according to the principles of sustainable agriculture, the only one approach able to fulfil the four fundamental requirements: (1) food security, (2) employment and good incomes for farmers, (3) protection, amelioration and long-term use of resources and (4) large participation with high decision-making power of people.

Under such a context, it is imperative to strengthen the soil science role in protection, amelioration and sustainable use of soil resources, as a fundamental condition to obtain food of quality adequate to the decent human life requirements (food security included), to promote also the new attitude of soil scientists for developing the interdisciplinary research and closer relationships with other scientists and other natural resources of agriculture.

Having in view that the soil is the main factor taken into account in the process of obtaining the agricultural products and food, and their quality is dependent on the soil quality, it is imperative that the soils should be maintained at such quality conditions permitting to fully fulfil their functions in the framework of a sustainable agriculture able to provide the food of good quality and food security at the level of requirements regarding the social and economic sustainable development as well as the biodiversity preservation and environmental protection.

Keywords: soil quality, food quality, food security, sustainable agriculture


Pedoterenul, un concept integrat de sol si teren

Pedoterrain, an integrated concept of soil and land

N. Florea

ICPA – Bucuresti


The concept of pedoterrain is conceived as an integrated territorial entity between soil and land form element and respectively, between soil cover and land configuration.

The pedoterrain is defined as a (natural) tridimensional triphasic unconsolidated body, support and resource for plant growth, forming at land surface a distinctive cover with proper configuration. This concept integrates both soil characteristics and land attributes, implicitly by those of the environment.

The pedotop, as elementary territorial unit of pedoterrain, is characterized by a uniform configuration and a certain geographical position and by distinctive functions in the framework of the terrestrial ecosystems and continental geosystems, more or less influenced by human activity.

The concept of the pedoterrain proffers a more comprehensive approach of the soil cover, respectively a plenteous information on topogeographical, geological, lithological and hydrological conditions, very important for the substantiation of the appropriate land use cover and the protection measures. This information is also more consistent with the geographic information system.

Keywords: soil, land form, integrated spatial approach


Consideratii asupra aplicarii conceptelor de echilibru si neechilibru la sistemele de soluri

I. Munteanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie




The aim of this paper is to analyse the soil system according to the equilibrium and non-equilibrium concepts (linear and non-linear thermodynamics) as defined by Ilya Prigogine and Isabelle Stanger. The premise is that the physical environment in which the soil develops is characterized by a high amount of entropy (disorder) that, according to the second law of thermodynamics, irreversibly increases in the Universe.

In this context the soil development as a high organized natural body becomes possible only by import of energy from the Sun to which the force of gravity and that brought by rainfall water has to be added. Because the most part of pedogenetic processed lead to an increase of the order (e.g. synthesis of new minerals, soil structure development and soil horizonation) pedogenesis may be viewed as anti-entropic process. This fact is not conflictual to the second law of thermodynamics since the order created by soil development has a local and temporal character and does not change the ever increasing general trend of the universal disorder. As an open system the soil maintains its equilibrium through matter and energy exchange with the environment. The entropy created by the loss of energy through internal soil forming processes “flows into the neighbourhoods”. Thermodynamically, the soil has to be viewed as an integral part of the environment from which withdraws its existence. It can’t be separated from the external fluxes of matter and energy which it transforms continuously. A special emphasis is given to the use of “steady state” concept for defining soil equilibrium. The main conclusion is that the “steady state” concept has to be cautiously used and limited only to that lag of time with high stability of the state factors, mainly climate and geomorphology. Thus “steady state” appears as illusory or ephemeral when related to the geologic time scale.

From pragmatic point of view the work concludes that soil is a dissipative structure subordinated mainly to the chaos laws, and the different soil degradation processes have as background the general state of thermodynamic non-equilibrium generated by the non-linear character of state factors, especially by climate.

Achieving progresses as concern knowledge of soil thermodynamics, from the point of view of equilibrium concepts appears as an important mean for predict and understand soil behaviour under the impact of ever increasing human pressures to which those generated by the ongoing climate change have to be added.

Keywords: equilibrium, non-equilibrium, soil, systems, thermodynamics


Soil criteria for a soil cover consistent partition at a global and regional level

N. Florea

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry




Nowadays the grouping of soilscapes and soil regions in higher territorial entities is done using geomorphic, litho-logical and climatic criteria (FAO UNESCO 1971; Soil Survey Manual, 1993, Georeferenced Soil Database for Europe, 1996).

It is proposed a system of hierarchical geographical units (taxa) and the respective determination soil criteria for the systematization of the various partition entities of soil cover (soil continuum). These ones are presented furthere.

The soil thermal zone is defined by soil temperature regime and intensity of solar radiation. Using the solar temperature regimes (Soil Taxonomy, 1975), the following soil zones may be distinguished: pergellic, cryic, frigid, mesic, thermic and hyperthermic.

The soil domain is a part of the thermal soil zone defined both by the configuration of the soil cover (that includes the geomorphic configuration and lithological characteristics) and by dominant soil or soils (and implicitly the soil moisture regime, the annual pedorhythms and dominant substance circulation). For the configuration (or ground surface form) of soil cover the following categories are proposed at small scale: level, sloping and steep. The dominant soils are determined by the one or two soils rendered at high level of classification (order or suborder).

The soil domain is denominated by the two main characteristics, for instance: sloping domain of Luvisols, level domain of Chernozems etc.

The soil region is defined by the parent material association and concrete peculiarities of the assemblage of soil cover of the different distinct parts of the soil domain. Each region gets a geographical name (regional and districtual).

The soil subregion is a subdivision of soil region based especially on the quantitative elements.

The soilscape unit (elementary) corresponds, generally, to a relative homogeneous geomorphic unit with unitary geological relative homogeneous  geomorphic unit with unitary geological evolution and functionality and it is characterized by different soil combinations associated to different land forms and by various soils (polipedons) that are components of soil combinations and that correspond, generally, to different elements of land forms.

The maps with soil regions do not replace the soil maps or soil combination maps at adequate scale, but they complete them.

Keywords: soil cover partition, pedogeographical entities, soil criteria


Influenta cantitatii si calitatii argilei asupra starii de asezare a unor cernisoluri din Campia Romana

C. Craciun*, Mihaela Lungu*, M. Dana**

*Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti

** Syngenta


Influence of the clay quantity and quality on the settling state of some cernisols (molisols) from the Romanian Plain



The paper is an attempt to quantify the influence of clay and clay minerals contents on the physical settling state indices of some Cernisols (Molisols) from the Romanian Plain.

The established linear relationships between physical indices and clay content of five Molisols were direct for the bulk density and the compaction degree, and inverse for the total and air porosity.

The identified clay minerals in the investigated soils were smectite, illite and kaolinite. The established relationships between physical indices and the content of main mineralogical content correlated, similar to the clay content, with the physical indices (directly with the bulk density and the compaction degree, and indirectly with the porosity indices), while, in the case of illite clay content, these relations were contrary as compared to the smectite clay content.

The established relationships at the colloidal level between physical indices and the two clay minerals were validated at soil level only for the smectite minerals. At this level, the values of the correlation coefficients for the relationships between physical parameters and smectite soil content were higher than those obtained between the same physical parameters and the clay content, suggesting that these indicators appear more closely related to the clay quality than to its quantity.

Keywords: clay minerals, clay and clay minerals – soil physical properties relationships


Distribution of total nickel in Oltenia soils

Gh. Gata, A. Mihailescu, Elena Bugeag

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest, Romania



A representation group were selected in such a way as to involve samples of all horizons and the main soil types of Oltenia soils.

The total nickel with a mean of 33.87 ppm is not uniformly distributed in the sand, silt and clay fractions. Since the content of these fractions highly correlated with the total nickel it is possible to estimate the means of this element in these fractions namely 13 ppm Ni, 50 ppm Ni and 53 ppm Ni respectively.

Due to the high correlations between the total nickel and the total iron, aluminium, potassium and magnesium it may be inferred that the nickel is especially involved in micas, illite, smectite like minerals and to a smaller extent in free sesquioxides.

The distribution into the soil profile is due to the inheritance of the parent materials and to the translocation processes of the clay and free sesquioxides.

Keywords: total nickel, distribution in separates, nickel minerals, Oltenia soils


Organizarea constituentilor minerali ai vertisolurilor din interfluviul Olt-Vedea

Ioana Taina, Daniela Raducu, I. Seceleanu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti


Mineral constituents organisation of the vertisols from the Olt-Vedea Interfluve



The aim of this paper is to analyse the specific manner of soil material organisation in vertisols, pointing out the plasma character, the predominant type of plasmic and elementary fabric and the type of the structure. The main micromorphological aspects of the material organisation in two typical Vertisols and one slightly pseudogleyed vertisol located on the Cotmeana Platform and Boian Plain are presented. These soils are characterized by several types of plasmic sepic fabric and a specific variation of the matrix material from A/B and By horizons due to the gravitational movement of the fragments from the upper horizons along the fissures open during the dry periods. A direct correlation between the development of the sepic plasmic fabrics, porphyropeptic elementary fabric, crack structure and the values of the clay fraction can be noticed. A reverse correlation between the development degree of the same aspects and the content of the organic matter is observed as well.

Point count analysis in the slightly pseudogleyed vertisol, for the estimation of the distribution of each type of plasma, plasmic and elementary fabric and structure in the pedogenetical horizons of the vertisols have been carried out.

The repartition of plasma and skeleton along the profile shows a surface contamination as well as a stratification of the parent material.

The increase of the content of clay-iron plasma and ferric nodules in the A/Bwy, B1y and B3y horizons can be related to a present and a past manifestation of the pseudogleyzation process. The decrease of the content of humic-iron-clay plasma in the the B3y horizon can be considered an indication regarding the depth of the pedoturbation process.

The correlation between the humic-iron-clay plasma, insepic plasmic fabric and porfiropectic elementary fabric and between the iron-clay plasma, mosepic, masepic and skelsepic plasmic fabric and porfiropeptic elementary fabric is confirmed. A correlation between the plasma richer in iron and the degree of development of the vosepic plasmic fabric is noticed also

Keywords: soil micromorphology, soil micromorphometry, soil organisation, vertisols.


The agrochemical improvement of soils in the context of sustainable agriculture

M. Rusu, Marilena Marghita, Augusta Lujerdean,

I. Oroian, Laura Paulette

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj Napoca


The durable character of the agriculture from the standpoint of fertility and agrochemical state of the soils is assumed to be ensured under the conditions in which the dynamic of the humified organic matter has at least or stationary character, if not an ascendant one and between the elements with a nutritive character, the implication of phosphates is overwhelming in this context considering the complex roles of this nutrient.

The ensurance of certain modification instalments of the mobile phosphates on the account of some neocluss mineral forms which already produce a stable enough supply expresses a different behaviour between the soils, in what concerns their evolution towards forms and combinations more and more stable which function as a durable, potentially active supply for more unstable forms of the phosphates.

This stable in time supply, expression of an “oldening” processing of the soil phosphates dynamically nourishes its mobile and unstable forms which have already acquired the nutritive significance of these elements for the plants.

Keywords: phosphate fractionment, durable agriculture


Soil cover partition of Europe and Romania territories based on soil criteria

I. Piciu, N. Florea

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest



One tries a regionalization of the Europe and Romania territories using strictly soil criteria (exposed in an apart paper at this congress by one of the authors).

At level of the Europe continent were delineated 4 thermal soil zones according to soil temperature regimes (cryic to pergelic, frigid, mesic and thermic) and several soil domains determined by the ground and soil cover form (level, sloping, steep) and dominant major soil(s).

At level of a country, the case of Romania were delineated: 2 thermal soil zones with frigid to cryic (at high altitudes) and mesic temperature regime; 10 soil domains and 20 soil regions. At level of an area, less extended, as in the case of Danube Delta region, more detailed geographic soil entities were demarcated including elementary soilscapes (constituted of soil combinations or associations and simple soil units).

Keywords: soil thermal zones, soil domains, soil regions, Europe, Romania, Danube Delta


Mediul natural, cadru structural si functional in definirea factorilor edafici in vestul Romaniei


The natural environment, the structural and functional background in defining the West Romania edaphic factors


D. Tarau1, I. Borza2, Irina Tarau3, H. Vlad1, D. Dologa1, T. Jurcut4

1OSPA Arad, 2USAMVB Timisoara, 3OSPA Timisoara, 4OSPA Bihor



The case study took into consideration a surface of 3251477 ha, 2112990 ha being represented by agricultural lands from Bihor, Arad, Timis and Caras Severin counties. The data regards the following:

-         main factors and soil genesis conditions (parent material geomorphology, geology and lithology, hydrography, etc)

-         main cosmic and atmospheric factors analyses (temperature, rainfall, etc) and their distribution in the studied area;

-         soil resources inventory with soil main types and associations presentation referring to the agricultural and silvicultural surface of the studied area

-         the edaphic factors role in biological and agricultural factors development

-         soil deterioration and risk factors evolution or that of ecological conditions evolution and preventing measurements.

The importance of the study is even greater if we take into consideration that 90% of the studied area is represented by the rural area an 65% by the agricultural area, aspect which shows that overall towns development depend in great part by the agricultural and silvicultural activities.

The presented aspects have as background the data from OSPA archive (Timisoara, Arad and Oradea), data that represents 50 years of pedological and agrochemical studies and researches, and data from the monitoring system organized by ICPA Bucharest.

The geographic and physical conditions common for the four counties of west Romania brought to a diversity of soil characteristics, here being met almost all types of Romania soils.

Although the natural ecological potential of this area is good, the soil quality is not very satisfying due to the activity of limiting and restrictive factors.

Keywords: environment, background, ecology, limiting, clime, edaphic, social


Consideratii privind bonitarea cadastrala a terenurilor agricole si baza de date a cadastrului calitativ agricol


Considerations on the agricultural land cadastral evaluation and the database of the agricultural qualitative cadastre


Virgil Vlad

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie – Bucuresti



Agricultural Qualitative Cadastre is a definite part of Agricultural Cadastre that should provide a great variety of information: data requested by the Economic Part of the General Cadastre (mainly, data for taxation), data for other public decisions (e.g. land use charge, land subsidies, exchange/compensation/reimbursement values, land reclamation projects, soil amelioration projects, other land use planning projects – including land amalgamations, litigious problem solving, environmental impact, etc.) and data for some private decisions (e.g. land rent, bank loans, different reference values, etc.).

At present, cadastral evaluation of agricultural land parcel only provides five “land quality classes”, much insufficient for present needs. The paper proposes an extended meaning of cadastral evaluation, which is defined by a set of specific evaluation indicators: current and ideal-potential land suitability indices (for 26 crops and 4 land use categories), land capability classes (for 4 land use categories), land reclamation capability classes (for irrigation, drainage control and erosion control), site assessment index, vineyards and orchards), a set of economic evaluation indicators for present land use of parcel – taking into account a defined reference sustainable crop technology (reference net margin, reference land rent, reference operation profit, taxation value, economic value, reference value, patrimonial value and value as removed land from agricultural use), risk evaluation index (for land use output variability), sustainability (durability) evaluation index, social evaluation index and an overall evaluation index of parcel.

Corresponding to the defined uses of the agricultural qualitative cadastre and to the defined cadastral evaluation, a set of agricultural land evaluation models (necessary for determination of the evaluation indicators – adapted for Romanian conditions – are identified in literature. The input data of these models define the content of the database of the agricultural qualitative cadastre. For establishing the data to be stored in the database, some principles are given: numerical codes, measured/estimated values instead of classes and values, redundant data for alternative application of models according to different available data, (pedo) transfer functions for deriving new/missing data, monthly climatic primary/input data, primary/input data characterising five soil layers (horizons), data accuracy indicators, etc.

Hierarchical nested structures of land spatial units are defined as basic elements/entities of the database: administrative district – administrative subdistrict (commune) – soil survey work – parcel – subparcel; pedo-geo-climatic microzone – climatically homogenous area (ACO, new concept) – soil unit (US) – ecologically homogenous territory (TEO) – TEO area – subparcel;  complex US (soil association) – simple US; complex TEO (three types) – simple TEO; US – US area – TEO area – soil profile identification number (link to the morphological/analytical soil profile database). Finally, the relational structure of the database entities is given.

Keywords: agricultural cadastre, agricultural qualitative cadastre, land evaluation, agricultural land cadastral evaluation, agricultural cadastre database.


2004, vol. XXXVIII, nr. 1-2

D. Davidescu, V. D. Cotea – Acad. Prof. Dr. Nicolae Cernescu

N. Florea – Actualitatea operei stiintifice a distinsului om de stiinta Nicolae Cernescu (1904-1967)

Alexandra Vasu – Chimia solului in viziunea acad. Nicolae Cernescu

I. Munteanu – Nicolae Cernescu personalitate stiintifica nationala si internationala

Volumnia Cristescu-Cucuta – Activitatea didactica a profesorulu Nicolae Cernescu

P. Papacostea – Marturisiri

Emanuela Ionescu – Imagini din viata si activitatea acad. Prof. Dr. Nicolae C. Cernescu


B. Houskova, L. Montanarella – Soil Information System of the Danube River Basin – Source of the data for flooding prediction models

A. Canarache – Indicatori climatici si regimuri de umiditate si temperatura a solului

N. Florea, Nineta Rizea – Modificarea  insusirilor de schimb cationic ale solurilor prin tratarea cu diferite saruri

Gh. Gata – Kaolinite in Romanian soils

C. Craciun, Victoria Mocanu, Sorina Dumitru – Mineralogia si calitatea solului

Anca Voiculescu, M. Dumitru, M. D. Motelica, Gabriela Mihalache, Carolina Constantin, Nicoleta Stefanescu – Testarea eficientei in stimularea procesului de biodegradare a titeiului a unui consortiu de bacterii selectionate intr-un experiment organizat in casa de vegetatie

A. Dorneanu, Emilia Dorneanu, C. Preda – Rolul fertilizarii cu ingrasaminte organominerale pe suport de lignit in agricultura durabila

F. Filipov, O. Tomita, Gabrielle Charlotte Chitanu, Irina Popescu, Dana Suflet – Efectul copolimerilor maleici asupra capacitatii de tamponare a componentelor horticole

R. Lacatusu, Beatrice Kovacsovics, Mihaela Lungu, Iuliana Breaban, I. Rasnoveanu, Nineta Rizea, Rodica Lazar – Metalele grele in solurile parcurilor bucurestene

R. Lacatusu, C. Rusu, Carmen Donisa, Iuliana Breaban, Mihaela Lungu – Incarcarea cu metale grele a unor soluri din Muntii Bistritei

I. Munteanu – Unele aspecte epistemologice si aplicarea lor in stiinta solului



C. Rusu – Profesorul N. Barbu la 80 de ani

Dr. Ioan Munteanu la 75 de ani

G. Stasiev – Naturalist reputat acad. Andrei Ursu la 75 de ani


N. Florea – Patru decenii de la cel de-al VIII-lea congres international de stiinta solului (1964)

S. Carstea – 80 de ani de la publicarea primei monografii mondiale privind situatia studierii si cartografierii solurilor

G. Lixandru – Prof. Dr. Eduard von Boguslawski

In Memoriam

C. Hera – Academician Prof. Dr. David Davidescu

M. Dragan-Bularda – Prof. Dr. Kiss Stefan


Soil information system of the Danube river basin – source of the data for flooding prediction models – B. Houskova, L. Montanarella (Soil & Waste Unit, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Institute, TP 280 Ispra (VA), 21020 Italy)



Extrem weather conditions of the last years connected with heavy rains and flooding invoked the needs of prediction of such phenomena. Flood risk assessment models based on the data from different parts of environmental information sources serve to these purposes. The Soil Information System of the Danube River Basin (SIS Danube) is an integral part of the Flood Risk Assessment Project, which is executed among the institutional JRC tasks. It is also an integral part of the Georeferenced Soil Database for Europe at the scale 1:250,000, one of the main elements of the European Soil Information System (EUSIS). Construction of the database is based on several elements: The Georeferenced Soil Database for Europe, Manual of Procedures, Version 1.1. (ESB, 2003); LISFLOOD, a distributed water-balance, flood simulation and flood inundation model, Version 1.0. (Ad De Roo, Jutta Thielen, Ben Gouweleew. EC/JRC, 2002) and the procedures and experiences developed in the pilot project creating the soil digital database for the Odra basin at the scale 1:250,000 (final report, Warsaw, 2001). The database structure is based on soil and landscape data in three levels: soil region, soilscape and soil body. Soil regions are characterised by dominant soil type, dominant parent material, climatic data, altitudes and major landforms. A soilscape could be defined as that portion of the soil cover which groups soil bodies having former or present functional relationships, and that can be represented at 1:250,000 scale. A soil body is a portion of the soil cover with diagnostic characteristics resulting from similar processes of soil genesis. Structure of the LISFLOOD model is based on the input and output data. Input data include: CORINE land cover, Soil Database Parameters, Flow rates, Meteorological Data, Geological data and Digital Elevation Model. Output data cover annual results about daily discharge (Water balance module), daily-weekly results and hourly discharge (Flood simulation module), hourly-daily results and flood extent (Flood Inundation Module). Soil database parameters needed for the model comprise general information as dominant soil in soilscape and number of soil region. Information about physiography of studied area is represented via major landform, regional slope, hypsometry degree of dissection, ground water table, presence of permanent water logging, minimum and maximum altitude, relief intensity, slope length and dominant slope and surface form. Parent material includes information about its kind and is represented via parent material surface level, depth to parent material change and parent material subsurface level. Basic soil properties needed for the model include information about textural composition of topsoil and subsoil, bulk density, organic matter content and pH. The Soil Information System of the Danube river basin can serve as an example of the multifunctional use of soil databases.

Key words:  flood risk assessment, soil information system,  Georeferenced Soil Database, Danube basin database.


Indicatori climatici si regimuri de umiditate si temperatura a solului/Climatic indicators and soil moisture and temperature regimes

A. Canarache

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie



An analysis of climatic indicators frequently used in soil science is presenting, showing good correlations existing in most cases between these indicators for the territory of Romania. The distribution of the main meteo stations in this country according to the Koeppen climate provinces and to the local system of agroclimatic zones is shown, and it results in an acceptable repartition of these data. The distribution of these meteo stations according to areas of different soil moisture and soil temperature regimes (identified according to the USDA Soil Taxonomy criteria is also presented, and again an acceptable repartition was found. The need for correcting climate indicators on basis of soil and land characteristics (available soil moisture capacity, groundwater supply, salinity and slope runoff) is discussed, a methodology and correction factors is presented, as well as a map of Romania showing results of such corrections.

Keywords: climate indicators, soil moisture regime, soil temperature regime, climate indicators correction


Modificarea insusirilor de schimb cationic ale solurilor prin tratarea cu diferite saruri

I – Modificarea componentei cationice

Modification of the exchange capacity properties by treatment with different salts

I – Modification of the cationic composition


Nicolae Florea, Nineta Rizea

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti


The treatment of some acid soils with different quantities of alkaline and neutral salts results in various replacement of the H cation depending on salt quantity and salt and cation nature. At equivalent salt quantity, the most absorbed cation is the Na from NaHCO3, followed bye Ca from CaCO3, and then by NH4 from NH4HCO3; the lowest absorbed is Na from NaCl.

In the case of calcaric soil a replacement of Ca cation by Na cation takes place; the differencies above mentioned due to salts are maintained.

Key words: soil treatment with salts, cationic composition.


Modificarea insusirilor de schimb cationic ale solurilor prin tratarea cu diferite saruri

II – Modificarea valorilor pH

Rizea Nineta, Florea Nicolae

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti


Modification of the exchange capacity properties by treatment with different salts

II – Modification of the pH value



The experimental data concerning pH values of soils with different degrees of exchangeable Na saturation prove that soils with high degree of Na saturation have alkaline reaction only in the case that they do not contain exchangeable H. If the exchangeable H and Na are present (Na saturation even more than 10-20%), the soil reaction can be more or less acid depending on the degree of H saturation. As a consequence, the interpretation of the soil sodisation degree has to be established taking into account both exchangeable Na saturation and exchangeable H saturation.

The polluted soils with brine, having high degree of exchangeable Na, present a very acid reaction, due to especially HCl formed by exchange reaction between H from soil and NaCl (emphasizing the acid reaction of soil).

Keywords: soil treatment with salts, pH values, pH of the brine polluted soil, correlation pH-V-VNa


Kaolinite in Romanian soils

Gh. Gata

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Bucharest



A statistical representative group of 472 soil samples selected from all horizons and main soil types of Romania were analyzed. Kaolinite was investigated by X-ray diffraction by means of orientated preparates of the clay fractions saturated in potassium, calcium and calcium glycolated and its crystallinity was estimated by three indices. This determination may be affected by the instrumental and pretreatment errors and the superposition of the (002) line of 14 Å minerals on the kaolinite (001) line at 7. 15 Å. The superposition does not affect the kaolinite line position (fig. 1) and its crystallinity indices (fig. 3) but may affect its intensity (fig. 2). Nevertheless in a first approximation kaolinite may be investigated with the overlooking contribution of 14 Å minerals as the minerals with interlayer hydroxy-aluminium represent only 7% from the analysed samples.

Kaolinite content in investigated soils varies between 0.14% and 6.94% and between 1.1% and 16.6% in clay fractions. The kaolinite statistical mean values confirm its rigid structure as the line position at 7.15 Å, the kaolinite content (table 2) and its crystallinity indices (table 4) do not change with the adsorbed ions.

Kaolinite is concentrated in the soil clay fraction as its content in soil increase in the same time with the clay content but the enrichment is smaller than that of the smectite so that kaolinite concentration in the clay fraction decrease when increase the clay content.

The crystallinity indices of the clay minerals at investigated soil increase in the succession smectite and intergrade, illite and kaolinite and show that kaolinite has a greater crystallinity than the 2/1 clay minerals.

Kaolinite crystallinity indices decrease in the succession IA>IC>IB and show that they include all ordering elements of the crystalline structure but in different proportions.

IB correlates with the clay content and suggest that the particle broken surface may be modified by the pedogenetical processes.

IA correlated with IB and show that particle broken surfaces become more and more ordered when increase the particle size.

The IA and IC indices do not correlate with clay fraction content and show a lower assort of the kaolinite particles during the sedimentation of the parent material due probable to its same dimensions and specific gravity with illite and its provenance from different sources.

IA and IB do not correlate with IC and show that the stacking of elementary layers is not dependent on the particle size and the ordering of the broken surface.

Keywords:  soil clay minerals, soil caolinite, Romania


Mineralogia si calitatea solului

C. Craciun, Victoria Mocanu, Sorina Dumitru

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Soil mineralogy and soil quality




The properties of soils may be characterized by many attributes which can be considered as soil quality indicators. These indicators are urgently required to evaluate soil degradation or pollution and level of remedetion.

Some soil properties, so-called fundamental properties, are relatively insensitive to degradation or pollution, but are important for interpreting the results of indicator measurements. Among these properties are soil texture, cation exchange capacity and soil mineralogical composition.

The discussion on mineralogical parameters using the simple scoring approach suggested by Cameron et al. (1998) for the potential soil quality indicators reveals that in comparison with the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil, the mineralogical properties are less sensitive to degradation or pollution and are not suitable for routine frequent measurements. For these reasons the mineralogical soil quality are not, in general, used.

Some aspects concerning the relationships between some mineralogical parameters and certain indicators which express the other properties of the soil are also discussed. These relationships show that the indicators of soil physical, chemical and biological quality incorporate also some aspects of mineralogical properties of soil.

In spite of a reduced possibility (in comparison with the other soil properties) to deliver indicators for the soil quality the soil mineralogy can offer useful information reffering to evolution of certain soil quality indicators and also to the remedetion measurements of the degraded or polluted soils.

Keywords: soil quality, soil mineralogy, soil quality-soil mineralogy relationships


Testarea eficientei in stimularea procesului de biodegradare a titeiului a unui consortiu de bacterii selectionate, intr-un experiment organizat in casa de vegetatie

Anca Voiculescu, M.Dumitru, D.M.Motelica, Gabriela Mihalache, Carolina Constantin, Nicoleta Stefanescu

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti


Testing the efficiency of a selected bacteria consortium to emphasize the oil biodegradation process in a green house experiment



The paper presents the results obtained in a green-house experiment organised for testing the efficiency of a selected bacteria consortium utilised for oil polluted soil enrichment as a main technological link of in situ bioremediation process.

The soil with or without selected bacteria inocullum was polluted with different oil concentration (0,25; 0,75; 3; 5; 7,50 and 12,50%).

Chemical and biological analyses were carried out each 30 days, five month period of time.

Keywords: selected bacteria consortium, oil biodegradation


Rolul fertilizarii cu ingrasaminte organominerale pe suport de lignit in agricultura durabila

A. Dorneanu, E. Dorneanu, C. Preda

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti



The organomineral fertilizers, which were studied, are complex fertilizers obtained by activation of ground lignite with phosphoric acid and then the product is ammonized with ammonium and granulated with ureaformaldehyde as well as organomineral fertilizers under form of mixtures. These fertilizers contain compounds with nitrogen and phosphorus included in an organomineral matrix that slows down and prolongues the periods of hydrolysis, ammonification and nitrification as well as the conversion of soluble phosphates into insoluble phosphates. Because of their long persistence in soil, the plants assimilate nitrogen in a higher percentage than from urea, and its leaching in soil is slower and much reduced.

The utilization of these fertilizer categories presents interest for sandy soils, eroded soils, humus poor luvisols as well as irrigated soils with light textures having the capacity to ensure a humic amelioration of their.

Keywords:  organomineral fertilizers, leaching, humic amelioration


Efectul copolimerilor maleici asupra capacitatii de tamponare a componentelor horticole

Filipov F., Tomita O.,

Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Ion Ionescu de la Brad Iasi

Chitanu Gabrielle Charlotte, Popescu Irina, Suflet Dana

Academia Romana, Institutul de Chimie Macromoleculara Petru Poni, Iasi


The effect of the maleic copolymers on the buffering capacity of horticultural substrata components


In this paper there are presented the first results regarding the influence of the organic polymer of maleic anhydride on the buffering capacity of peat, old manure and mollic horizon of cambic chernozem and the calculating method of the surface  area between two buffering capacity curves by co-ordonates. The buffering capacity of the old manure, treated with these polymers, increases in all experimental variants. The buffering capacity to alcalinisation values of peat slightly decreases. The organic polymer of maleic anhydride has favourable influence in the maintenance of the pH-values stability of horticultural substrata, preventing the drastic fluctuations that affect plant growth.

Keywords: maleic copolymers, buffering capacity, horticultural substrata


Metalele grele in solurile parcurilor bucurestene

Radu Lacatusu1, Beatrice Kovacsovics, Mihaela Lungu,

Iuliana Breaban2, Ion Rasnoveanu, Nineta Rizea, Rodica Lazar

1Universitatea “Al. I. Cuza”, Facultatea de Geografie-Geologie, Iasi

2Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Heavy metals in soils of Bucharest parks



The main soil types emphasized in Bucharest parks are: Luvic Phaeozem, Luvi-chromic Phaeozem, Mollic Gleyic Fluvisol and Anthropic Regosol. Most of the studied soils, excepting the Anthropic Regosols, are formed and evolve in natural conditions. Soil texture in the A horizon is loamy/clay-loam. The Luvic Phaeozem and the Luvi-chromic Phaeozem have pH values in the slightly acid up to slightly alkaline domain, while the Mollic Gleyic Fluvisol and the Anthropic Regosol have slightly alkaline reaction, due to a moderate carbonates content. As a consequence, the soils of Bucharest parks are eubasic and saturated with bases. Humus content is low up to middle, and the nitrogen one is middle. The mobile phosphorus and potassium supply is contrasting, from small values up to very big ones.

The values of the total heavy metals content are relatively small, generally situated in the first quarter of the interval between the normal content and the maximum allowable limit. The fractions bound to iron and aluminium oxides and those bound to the crystalline net of the soil minerals have the highest percent out of the total heavy metals content. The soluble and likely available heavy metals fractions are significant in the Luvic phaeozems. The loading/pollution index values show that most of the analyzed heavy metals belong to the low-moderate loading domain and no significant soil pollution with heavy metals exists in Bucharest parks.

Keywords: parks, heavy metals, loading/pollution, heavy metals fractions.


Incarcarea cu metale grele a unor soluri din Muntii Bistritei


R. Lacatusu1, C. Rusu1, Carmen Donisa1

Iuliana Breaban1, Mihaela Lungu2

1Universitatea “Al. I. Cuza”, Facultatea de Geografie-Geologie, Iasi

2Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie, Bucuresti


Heavy metal loading of some soil from the Bistrita mountains



Heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) abundance in the soils of the Bistrita Mountains is close to the general content of these chemical elements in soils formed under similar conditions. Total heavy metals content is made up of the chemical element quantity in the crystalline structure of the minerals (coordinate form), of the quantity complexed with the organic matter and of the mobile form, the form free in soil solution, or adsorbed at the surface of colloidal particles. Generally, in the soils of Bistrita Mountains copper and lead are to be found, in significant quantities, in the organic bound form, and manganese and zinc in the co-ordinate form. Heavy metals distribution on the podzols profiles presents a modulation at the E horizons level because of these chemical elements are leached to the inferior horizons. The distribution of heavy metals on the Cambisols profiles is relatively uniform, tending to increase in the profile bottom. The analyzed heavy metals have a normal distribution with both left (lead, manganese) and right (copper, zinc) asymmetry.

Geochemical abundance is of sub-clark type for copper, manganese, and zinc and over-clark for lead. Pedogeochemical abundance of manganese, lead and zinc outruns the medium general content of soils, and copper abundance is below this characteristic.

The soils of Bistrita Mountains are not polluted with heavy metals. They have different loading with heavy metals, from medium to strong for copper, from medium to very strong for lead, and from low to very strong for zinc.

Keywords: mountain soils, heavy metals, distribution on soil profile, geochemical abundance, pedogeochemical abundance.


Unele aspecte epistemologice si aplicarea lor in stiinta solului

I. Munteanu

ICPA Bucuresti

Some epistemological aspects and their application to soil science



The paper discusses the application in soil science of some epistemological methods as they are recognised in the recent developments in the philosophy of science: empirical evidence (observation), deduction and induction, hybrid models, determinism and predictability, complexity and disorder, probability, reductionism and holism, chaos and complexity.

Keywords: epistemology, soil science


2005 – vol. XXXIX, nr. 1-2

Decernarea titlului de Doctor Honoris Causa dlui Ing. Ioan Munteanu

Cuvant introductiv – prof. dr. Alexandru Moisuc

Laudatio – prof. dr. Iosif Borza

Cuvant de multumire – Dr. Ioan Munteanu

Stiinta solului – aspecte istorice si provocari contemporane – dr. Ioan Munteanu

Curriculum vitae – Dr. Ioan Munteanu

Memoriu de activitate – Dr. Ioan Munteanu

Lista de lucrari – Dr. Ioan Munteanu


Gh. Rogobete, R. Bertici, D. Beutura – Comportament reologic in vertosolul de la Cheglevici – Timis

P. Gus, T. Rusu – Sistemele neconventionale de lucrare a terenului, alternative de conservare a solului

D. Apetrei, I. Rusu – Modificari ale proprietatilor fizice ale cernoziomului cambic de la SD Timisoara sub influenta fertilizarii si irigarii

D. Manea, A. Lazureanu, G. Carciu, S. Alda – Impactul lucrarilor solului asupra unor insusiri fizice ale acestuia si a productiei la grau si porumb

C. Craciun, Victoria Mocanu, Valentina Cotet – Argila si sanatatea umana

I. Gavriluta, Daniela Stefanescu, Gabi-Mirela Matei, S. Matei, Mihaela Dogaru – Cercetari preliminare privind optimizarea reactiei si a regimului nutritiv prin protonarea biologica a coloizilor solului cultivat cu specii acidofile in sistem protejat

Andru Monica, I. Palagesiu, I. Borza, D. Tarau, Irina Tarau – Cercetari privind influenta sistemului de cultura no-till asupra unor componente ale agrobiocenozei in conditiile din Campia Vinga

I. Timbota, D. Beutura, O. Timbota, Gh. Chisalita – Cercetari privind influenta fertilizarii foliare cu diferite produse neconventionale la grau si porumb pe preluvosolul molic de la Sanandrei, judetul Timis

Date preliminare privind efectul produselor Cerasil aplicate la cultura de porumb - Dana Daniela, Dorneanu Emilia, Dorneanu Aurel, Cotet Valentina, Gavriluta I., Furculesteanu Andaluzia, Sarbu Carmen

Rezultate preliminare privind eficacitatea unui sortiment de ingrasaminte lichide cu insusiri ecologice destinate pentru fertilizarea castravetilor in sere - Dorneanu E., Dorneanu A., Dumitru M., Sarbu Carmen, Stefanescu Daniela, Dana Daniela, Gavriluta I, Maria Schutz, Dascalul V, Popescu Geosepina

Impactul tehnologiilor informatice asupra activitatilor de cartare, actualizare si modernizare a studiilor pedologice - D. Tarau, Gh. Marton, M. Racovician, D. Treta

I. Borza, D. Tarau, I. Pusca – Resursele de sol din spatiul banato-crisan sub aspectul cerintelor de ameliorare

D. Sarau, I. Borza, H. Vlad – Structura agrara si particularitatile zonale ale judetului Arad, o expresie a conditiilor natural-sociale

N. Florea, Emilia Florea – Solul, suport esential al vietii pe uscat

Viorica Iancu, Mirela Coman – Rolul studiilor pedologice in cazul accidentelor majore de mediu

I. Munteanu – Despre cartarea pedologica si harta de soluri in etapa actuala

C. Biris, M. Stoian – Utilizarea informatiei pedologice si agrochimice in managementul agricol – Studiu de caz

L. Nita, I. Rusu, V. Stefan, Casiana Mihut, K. Lato – Favorabilitatea solurilor din Campia Banatului pentru diferite folosinte si culturi de camp

M. Dumitru – Poluarea si depoluarea solurilor din zona Copsa Mica

Irina Tarau, I. Borza, D. Tarau – Gradul de persistenta al leguminoaselor perene in diferite conditii de valorificare si rolul acestora in protectia si ameliorarea solului

I. Creanga – Ameliorarea unor soluri poluate cu apa sarata de la exploatarile petroliere din judetul Arges

Viorica Iancu, Mirela Coman – Probleme specifice poluarii cu metale grele in zona Baia Mare

R. Lacatusu, Beatrice Kovacsovics, Rodica Lazar, Nineta Rizea, Mihaela Lungu, Carolina Constantin, Gabi-Mirela Matei, S. Matei, C. Vintila, V. Iordache – Reciclarea in agricultura a slamului petrolier 1. Insusiri fizice, chimice si biologice

A. Simion, A. Lazureanu, G. Carciu, D. Manea – Influenta amendamentelor organice si minerale asupra degradarii pesticidelor

Gh. Craioveanu, Lucica Sarbu, D. Popescu, I. Calinoiu, Violeta Carigoiu, Simona Stanciu, C. Negrea – Modificari ale insusirilor solurilor sub actiunea poluarii antropice in judetul Gorj



C. Craciun – Dr. Ing. Gheorghe Gata la 80 de ani

A. Canarache – Ing. Stelian Carstea la 80 de ani



Stiinta solului – aspecte istorice si provocari contemporane

Soil science – historical aspects and contemporary challenges

I. Munteanu


After more than 120 years since its birthday, soil science, especially pedology, is challenged by serious conjunctural difficulties supposed to be generated by its incapacity to answer the complex problems put by soil use in the present day society. The main cause of this incapacity is thought to be the preservation of the Dokuchaevist concept of soil as natural body. These difficulties are expressed mainly by the lack of funding, fact that has as consequence both, a continuous diminishing of soil scientists number and of their prestige within the scientific community. Some soil scientists speak about a “deep crisis” that threatens even the long-term perspectives of this domain. However, the analysis of the historical development of soil science, since the beginning of the XIXth century (Thaer momentum) until the end of the XXth one (WRB-SR momentum) shows a continuous increase of its problem solving capacity. One estimate that at the present time, that capacity reaches near 75% of the soil problems use and management. At the same time the concept of soil – as “natural body” as stated by Dokucheaev is yet standing-up. Various models concerning soil imagined and defined in other disciplines did not weaken yet the Dokuchaevist idea of soil as natural body.

The present day communication difficulties of pedology with different soil data users arise not from the preservation of Dokuchaevist concept of soil but from the fact that not always between the soil as natural body (taxonomically defined) and the soil cover as economical resource a clear distinction is made. On the other hand many difficulties result from the still insufficient adaptation of soil survey to the needs of the newcomers (environmentalists, naturalists a.o.).

The development of pedology as science may be viewed in four scenarios: 1) as a basic natural science (process and soil regime oriented); 2) markedly applied science (as to day); 3) natural applicative science – partly applied, partly basic; 4) integrated within environmental sciences e.g. land cover sciences, or other geosciences. The biggest chance seems to have the 3rd scenario that offers both the possibility to increase the theoretical capacity and improvement of the ability in solving practical problems.

The replacement of the Dokuchaevist paradigm (paradigm shift) with another, more sophisticated one, and adapted to IT oriented mostly to environment problems may be foreseen for the III-V decades of this century.

The organizational, theoretical and practical pedological problems of the next fifty years are also reviewed and discussed.

Keywords: historical aspects, soil science, contemporary challenges


Comportament reologic in Vertisolul de la Cheglevici – Timis

Rogobete Gh.*, Bertici R.**, Beutura D.**

*Universitatea Politehnica din Timisoara

**Oficiul pentru studii Pedologice si Agrochimice Timisoara


Rheological behaviour in vertisols from Cheglevici – Timis, Romania



Vertisols are deep clayey soils, more than 30% clay, dominated by clay minerals, such as smectites, that expand upon wetting and shrink upon drying.

The most important physical characteristics of vertisol are a low hydraulic conductivity a stickiness when wet and high flow of water through the cracks, when dry. They become very hard when dry and in all the time they are difficult to work. During the rainy season, the cracks disappear and the soil becomes sticky and plastic with a very slippery surface which makes vertisols – trafficable when wet.

In order to investigate the rheological behaviour, some determinations in the field and laboratory were made, like plasticity, resistance to compression with triaxial shear equipment, cohesion, internal angle of response, resistance breaking, soil deformation, elasticity module of compression and subsidence. Some other indices, such as activity index, contraction and swelling, conventional pressure were calculated. It is known that a soil with a certain moisture content behaves elasto/plastic and when it is dry – frail. A pure plastic behaviour for heavy – clayey soils appear when the moisture content exceeds the plastic limit.

The pressure induced with a load applied on the surface of the soil are added at gravitational pressure and becomes for a trailer 1000 kPa, for small animals 150 kPa, for big animals 300 kPa and for human beings about 200 kPa.

The main results obtained between 0-150 cm depth in the vertisols from Cheglevici are: plasticity index 36.0-41.5, activity index 0.88-1.30, plasticity criterion 30.22-39.35%, contraction volume 92.39-115.03%, free swelling 112.4/158.9%, contraction limit 11.71-17.61%, cohesion 0.58/0.62 daN/cm2, angle of response 21-230, module friction 23800-15800 kPa and conventional pressure 585-710 kPa. It can be noticed that the soil profile from Cheglevici has a plastic consistence, to plastic viscous, and in this state are produced a maximum deformation and all of the rheological indices indicate a great activity with a high conventional and effective pressure on the foundations of constructions. An intense traffic on this type of soils produces a great deformation and degradation of soil structure.


Sistemele neconventionale de lucrare a terenului, alternative de conservare a solului

P. Gus, T. Rusu

Universitatea de Stiinte Agronomice si Medicina Veterinara Cluj Napoca


Unconventional soil tillage systems alternatives for soil conservation



The unconventional soil tillage systems: no till furrow paraplow, chisel and rotary harrow, used in a 4-5 year crop rotation are alternatives for conservation of haplic chernozem, phaeozem, haplic luvisol and mollic fluvisol from hilly areas and slope terrains.

Fertility conservation is carried out through the improvement of soils, physical features, porosity, internal drainage, structure hydrostability, accompanied by 5 years increase of humus content with 0.1-0.4%. The enzymatic activity and the biological index of fertility that occur in the case of unconventional soil tillage systems are superior to other systems.

Keywords: soil tillage systems, soil conservation


Modificari ale unor proprietati fizice ale cernoziomului cambic de la S.D. Timisoara sub influenta fertilizarii si irigarii

Apetrei D., Rusu I.

USAMVB Timisoara


Changes of physical properties of the haplic chernozem from Timisoara training site under irrigation conditions



In this study we point out the changes of the physical properties of the haplic chernozem under irrigation and differential fertiliser doses influence.

It is found a weak increase of soil density and bulk density, correlated with a decrease of pore volume, and aeration porosity.

Keywords: density, bulk density, pore volume, aeration porosity.


Impactul lucrarilor solului asupra unor insusiri fizice ale acestuia si a productiei la grau si la porumb

D. Manea, A. Lazureanu, G. Carciu, S. Alda


The effect of soil tillage on some physical features of the soil and on yield results of wheat and maize crops



Research was carried out between 2000-2003 at the Experimental Station in Timisoara, on a haplic chernozem with clayey texture, weak acid reaction (pH 6.7) and medium humus content (3.4%). We monitored the effect of some unconventional soil tillage works (para-plough, chisel or simply disc) compared to classical tillage, on some physical features of the soil (bulk density, total and air porosity, structure) on weed control and on yield level of two main crops – wheat and maize.

Results show that unconventional soil tillage resulted in a considerable increase of bulk density values (6.2-13.1% in wheat and 3.9-13.2% in maize) an of air porosity. We also noticed an improvement in structural state of soil horizons.

A disadvantage of unconventional soil tillage is the inefficient weed control as compared to control variant (143-174% weeding in wheat crops and 147-180% in maize). Though yields in unconventional variants are sensibly smaller as compared to control variant they are quite normal (92.7-96.3% in wheat and 94.4-96.4% in maize), however long-term benefits such as soil fertility and soil structure improvement recommend them for both crops provided one finds an efficient strategy in weed control.

Keywords: soil tillage, physical features, yield, winter wheat, maize.


Argila si sanatatea umana

C. Craciun, V. Mocanu, V. Cotet

Institutul National de Cercetare si Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului


Clay and human health



This paper is a general approach concerning clay implications in human health. The effects of these implications can be malefic or beneficial.

As aggression factor for human health clay can cause several medical problems as result of indigestion (geophagia), inhalation and absorption through skin lesions.

As beneficial agent for human health, clay can be used as active principle in pharmaceutical formulations orally administrated (gastrointestinal protectors, laxatives, antidiarrhoeaics) or for topical application (dermatological protectors and cosmetics). Also clay can be used in pelotherapy and sometimes as nutritional supplement or detoxifier of human organism.

The therapeutic virtues of the clays are conditioned by the properties of clay minerals which are constituents of the clays. Some of these properties like surface area, electric charge, exchange properties and expandability are discussed.

These aspects recommend the mineralogical analysis beside biological and chemical analyses like instruments for clay characterization with the view of clay use as therapeutic agent.

Keywords: clay-human health, clay minerals-human health relationship, clay minerals


Cercetari preliminare priving optimizarea reactiei si a regimului nutritive prin protonarea biologica a coloizilor solului cultivat cu specii acidofile in sistem protejat

I. Gavriluta, D. Stefanescu, G-M. Matei1

S. Matei, M. Dogaru2

1 Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti

2Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pomicola, Baneasa



The ultimate research carried out worldwide and in Romania (1993-2001) show that by biological oxidation of some residual or natural materials with sulphur, positive economical and ecological results we obtained.

This biological protonation of colloids from high base saturated soils (uncarbonated soils) aims a durable optimization of soil pH as well as the increasing of productive use degree by plants of phosphorus and of some micronutrients by their mobilization from insoluble forms.

Use of this technology the applied sulphur in soil is gradually oxidized by enzymatic control sulphuroxidant bacterium from soil (Thiobacillus especially), determines a soil reaction moving from neutral – easily alkali to easily acid domain (specifically for some plants), favourable at the same time for phosphorus mobilization from insoluble forms of the soil (especially from superior calcium phosphates), as well as other nutrients (micronutrients especially).

Based on the same principles, this paper presents also some preliminary research regarding the influence of biologically protonation of the soil colloids cultivated with acidophil horticultural crops.

The new biological protonation technology application (unpolluting technology) of high base saturation soil colloids (uncarbonated soils) may determine the following aspects:

-         more reduced price with secure application of acidifying material and durable optimization of pH, phosphatic regime and of micronutrients of soil in comparison with classical acidifying materials used in present

-         increasing of productive degree use (superior utilization) of phosphorus from superior calcium phosphates and of micronutrients from insoluble forms of the soil: some yield carried out experiments shows that during 5 years from sulphur application in soil, their efficiency is equivalent with a significantly rate of 50-80 kg P2O5/ha/year as soluble phosphate fertilizers

-         utilization of the biological protonation gives the possibility to use some residual materials, diminishing in this way the possible negative effect on environment.



Cercetari privind influenta sistemului de cultura no till asupra unor componente ale agrobiocenozei in conditiile din campia Vinga

Andru Monica1, Palagesiu I.2, I. Borza2, D. Tarau2, I. Tarau3

1Prodagro Vest Arad, 2USAMV Timisoara, 3OSPA Timis


Research on no till cultural system influence on some agrobiomass components from Vinga plain



We present some results on no till cultural system influence over some components of wheat and corn crop biooenosis in Vinga plain conditions (subunit of Aradul Nou). We put some accents on harmful flora and fauna structure of wheat and corn crops. We analyse pest and disease) components which have an increased risk of spreading in no till system, as well as the evolution of those with significant impact. We add to this some characteristics of weed sequence development.

We note the incremental stock of some pests spread on vegetal decays (Pseudocercosporella herotrichoides (Fron.) Deighton, Fusarium graminearum, Schw (Cke) Snyder et Hanse, Haplotrips trips tritici Kurdj, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) or decremental stocks (Ustilago maydis (DC) Corda), as well as easy development of vegetation regenerated weeds (Cyrsium arvense (L) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon L., Rubus caesius L. s.a.) or of those that grow on stubble field (Stellaria sp., Capsella bursa pastoris L., Medik., Laminum purpureum L., Polygonum convolvulus L., Matricaria inodora L., s.a.)

Keywords: system, agrobiooenosis, wheat, corn


Cercetari privind influenta fertilizarii foliare cu diferite produse neconventionale la grau si porumb pe preluvosolul molic de la Sanandrei, judetul Timis


Timbota I., Beutura D., Timbota O., Chisalita Gh.

OSPA Timisoara


Investigation on application of foliar fertilizers with unconventional products on a luvic phaeozem for winter wheat and maize of Sanandrei – Timis



All of the 14 mineral nutrients required by cropped plants can be purchased in a water-soluble form fertilizers and occur in the soil solution. Regardless of their water solubility, most of fertilizer nutrients added to soils quickly undergo chemical reactions with constituents of the soil so that the concentration remaining in solution is significantly changed.

Some nutrients can be applied to crops as foliar sprays dissolved in water, injected into soils in water, or applied in water to plants of roots.

The main object of our investigation in an experimental field of Sanandrei was to know the influence of the foliar application of fertilizers upon winter wheat and maize cultivated on a luvic phaeozem.

There were tested some foliar complex fertilizers of different origins in 16 variances for winter wheat and in 14 variances for maize.

The number of repetitions was 4 and the number of the treatments was 3 using 500 l solution for each treatment.

The efficiency for winter wheat varied between 2-20% with a greatest efficiency in the case of treatment with Fitofolis 411, Idrosol 10-14-10 and MaxiFeed 20-20-20.

For maize, the efficiency varied between 9-18% with a maximum efficiency for Nitrofoska 30-10-10 variant.


Date preliminare privind efectul produselor Cerasil aplicate la cultura de porumb

Dana Daniela, Dorneanu Emilia, Dorneanu Aurel

Cotet Valentina, Gavriluta I., Furculesteanu Andaluzia, Sarbu Carmen

Institutul de Cercetari pentru Pedologie si Agrochimie Bucuresti


Preliminary data concerning the use of Cerasil products applied to maize crop


The paper presents the experimental results obtained with maize by applying a new set of phosphorus fertilizers type Cerasil. These fertilizers are manufactured on the basis of phosphate frits which contain the PK macronutrients in different proportions.

Splitting applications of the Cerasil fertilizers (as supplementary application to the basic fertilization) allows the improvement the plant nutrition along the growing season.

The application of this set of fertilizers on maize, in greenhouse, in 2003, led to an increase of dry matter production and ensured an accumulation of PK in dry matter of plants.

Keywords: phosphorus fertilizers, greenhouse experiment, maize


Rezultate preliminare privind eficacitatea unui sortiment de ingrasaminte lichide cu insusiri ecologice destinate pentru fertilizarea castravetilor in sere

Dorneanu E., Dorneanu A., Dumitru M.,

Sarbu Carmen, Stefanescu Daniela, Dana Daniela, Gavriluta I1

Maria Schutz, Dascalul V2

Popescu Geosepina3

1Institutul National de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului Bucuresti

2SC Gini Transcom SRL Craiova

3SC Sere SA Codlea Brasov


Preliminary results concerning the efficiency of a set of liquid fertilizers with ecological properties provided for fertilization of greenhouse cucumbers



The paper presents the preliminary results concerning the application of 3 liquid fertilizers with cucumbers in greenhouse. These fertilizers contain macro and microelements essential for plant nutrition characterised by ecological properties. Their application can be done by both foliar way and drip irrigation system in many times along the whole growing season. This application assures an intensive fertilization of the crops in greenhouse with controlled rates in view to prevent the chemical pollution. Obtained results show a high efficiency as was demonstrated by a good plant development, important yield increase and ecological quality of cucumbers.

This testing reveals the high qualities of these liquid fertilizers for the fertilization of the main crops in greenhouse.

Keywords: liquid fertilizers, ecological properties, cucumbers, greenhouse


Impactul tehnologiilor informatice asupra activitatilor de cartare, actualizare si modernizare a studiilor pedologice

D. Tarau1, Gh. Marton2, M. Racovician3, D. Treta4

USAMVB Timisoara1, GEOTOPO Odorheiu Secuiesc2

Pifca Timisoara3, POWER BIT Timisoara4


IT Impact on mapping, updating and modernization in soil science activities



In this paper we present some aspects regarding existing soil science data processing in OSPA Timisoara. Our database contains accumulated information in OSPA archives (at Timisoara and Arad) during 50 years of activity. These data are processed through GIS&GPS systems.

At the beginning we present the SPED 1 informatic system characteristics. This system was conceived by Treta & colab. in 1987. The system is used for soil rating technological characterization, limiting and restrictive factors analysis, capability classes assessment ameliorative works evaluation etc. there are implied 80 characterisation factors, according to MESP (ICPA Buc., 1987).

Further there are presented definitory data for digital map support blue print. In this purpose we display the attributes to be contained in relation-alphanumeric database.

-         soil maps (that exist in performed studies) with soil limits (at UT or TEO level) according to SRTS 2003 & MESP 1987.

-         Thematic map (in color) at soil type level (SRTS 2003)

-         Scanned map containing soil limits, overlapped to cadastral plot limits (before and after Law 18 implementation) and to satellite images (white/black – sputnik, and cologred – ICONOS).

At the end we present final basic data that incorporates UT (TEO) number type, subtype (SRTS 2003) acreage, land use category; then are also presented the relationship between UT (respectively TEO) keys to TEO and soil complexes soil rating tables and index values tables.

Based on this information in the future it is possible to establish links to Law 7/1996 (art. 4&11) and to Cadastral Book organisation Regulation (art. 81 annex 3, etc.).

Keywords: informatic system, automation, digital map, cadastral (funcial).


Resursele de sol din spatiul Banato-Crisan sub aspectul cerintelor de ameliorare


I. Borza, D. Tarau – USAMVB Timisoara

I. Pusca – SCDA Lovrin


Soil resources in Banat-Crisana area from ameliorative demand aspects



Being a distinctive part of Romania’s territory from geomorphological and soil cover point of view, this area was object of hydro-ameliorative activity and suffered significant transformation that influenced its future evolution.

Banat – Crisana zone represents a major interest area for modern reclamation research, the only one capable to support on technical and scientific basis appropriate measures to obtain vegetal biomass in optimized conditions and rigorously correlated with environment protection requirements.

A particular attention is dedicated to the trends regarding soil degradation evolution under anthropic activities impact; it results the necessity to continue soil mapping and research aiming conservation and durable utilization of agricultural and silvicultural use of soil resources.

Keywords: climatic, edaphic, ecologic(al), social, economic biodiversity, degradation, amelioration.


Structura agrara si particularitatile zonale ale judetului Arad o expresie a conditiilor natural-sociale

D.Tarau1, I. Borza1, H. Vlad2, D. Dologa2, A. Iliuta3, D. Florea3

1USAMVB Timisoara, 2OSPA Arad, 3Sc. Gen. 4 Arad


Agrarian structure and zonal particularities of Arad county expression of natural and social conditions



The paper presents the main aspects of land resources in a surveyed area (775409 ha of which 511520 arable). We briefly present physical and geographical characteristics of this zone, their edaphic cover structure and specific cover structure and specific features of each subzone, respectively their favourability regarding main crops in natural or anthropically modified conditions.

In the end we present general measures recommended to be applied to reach durable management of land resources for each specific subzone.

Keywords: zonal, natural, favourability, potential


Solul, suport esential al vietii pe uscat

N. Florea, E. Florea

ICPA Bucuresti


Lumina si caldura cereasca a Soarelui impletita cu mustul si rodnicia solului sunt ingemanate si inglobate de puterea miraculoasa si sublima a plantelor in binefacatoare substante organice care asigura atat forta sau energia, cat si sursa permanenta de compusi esentiali pentru dainuirea vietii pe Pamant.

(N. Florea, 2004)


The soil as an essential support of life



The soil represents a laboratory at world scale where the synthesis of organic matter takes place by clorophilian assimilation of plants, organic matter that makes possible the development of the vital processes in the whole biosphere and life perpetuation. For this photosynthesis the solar light, CO2, H2O and biophilic chemical elements are necessary.

The soil’s role as essential support of life consists of:

-         favourable physical medium for plant development

-         continuous provider of water and chemical elements involved in photosynthesis, participating in this way to the production of organic matter and to the accumulation of energy

-         cyclic decay of the organic remainders, making possible the re-use (cycling) of the nutrients, absolutely necessary for the perpetuation of life

-         selective accumulation (reservoir) of nutrients and organic matter, very useful for the soil fertility and production potential of terrestrial ecosystems, very important for ensuring the development of life of animals and men

-         an efficient agent for the crop increase by water and nutrient application

The soil is one of the five supporting pillars of the life edifice: the sun by its continuous flux of radiant energy, the soil, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere by supplying with mineral nutrients and suitable growth conditions and the living organisms by their capacity to synthesize organic matter. For this reason, the protection of soils, waters and air quality is both a national and a global problem.


Rolul studiilor pedologice in cazul accidentelor majore de mediu

Iancu V.1, Coman M.2

1OSPA Maramures, 2Universitatea de Bord Baia Mare


The role of soil surveys when major environmental accidents occur



In this paper a major environmental accident occurred in Baia Mare Depression is presented: that is the outflow of cyanure form the Bazanta sedimentation artificial pound. The direct effects were pollution of cca 25 ha of agricultural land, of ground water beneath and of Somes, Tisa and Danube river waters. In such a case the soil surveys represent the main soil for establishing the level of pollution both and the soil as well as of the ground and surface waters.

Keywords: major environmental accident, cyanure


Despre cartarea pedologica si harta de soluri in etapa actuala

I. Munteanu, ICPA


On the present day problems of pedological mapping and soil maps



Although of more than 100 years old, both soil mapping and soil maps are challenged by serious difficulties. The main cause is the ever-growing demand for soil data of the present day society. To survive, the classical soil mapping, based on field soil surveys and landscape interpretation, has to be modernized by introducing information technology and remote sensing facilities (i.e. GPS, GPR, SA). Promising perspectives shows emergent automated terrain and soil mapping methodologies, able to create pedological data bases consisting of continuous layers using GIS, DEM and remote sensing data, combined with conventional ground data (i.e. soil profiles, classical soil maps, surface lithology, land-use, a.o.).

As concern soil map drawn on the paper, its future is the integration, as geometric component in Digital soil data bases and GIS.

Some deficiencies of the present-day soil maps e.g. too complicated language for naming soils, faint precision of the mapping units limits and the confusion often made between the taxonomic soil map and soil resources map are also discussed.

Keywords: soil mapping, soil maps


Utilizarea informatiei pedologice si agrochimice in managementul agricol

-         studiu de caz -

Cristian Biris, Mircea Stoian

SC Gauss Soft SRL Timisoara


Agrochemica and pedological information in agricultural management

-         case study -



AgroGest is a program designed for firms that perform agricultural activities.

The main target of the program is the administration of the agricultural activities performed by the firm, the centralization of the information regarding the use of agricultural equipment, the working time of the farm’s personnel and by the day workers, the consumption record of fuel and substances used in the treatment of various crops.

Besides the above-mentioned features, the program has an integrated module for own land administration (survey) and leased land as well, for owed lease reckoning, the productivity record of a plot for different crops.

AgroGest was conceived as an easy to use and flexible program. It is also easy to translate in any language as its linguistic resource is external and it is integrated in a .dll file. All texts, labels that appear in the interface are linguistic resources.

Keywords: management, agriculture, software, activities, consumption, agrochemical, fertilizer, soil-science, crop rotation, farm log.


Favorabilitatea solurilor din Campia Banatului pentru diferite folosinte si culturi de camp

L. Nita, I. Rusu, V. Stefan, Casiana Mihut, K. Lato

USAMVB Timisoara


Suitability of soils from Banat Plain for different kind of land-use and field crops


The increase of yield and of soil fertility is directly determined by a detailed knowledge of soil-formation processes, of the evolution and of the state of supplying soils with main nutrients. Previous research concerns numerous analytic data for a period of over 40 years, an interval in which numerous changes occurred both in soil properties and in research methodology, in mapping and in appraisal works. As soil features are dynamic and in close relation to soil-formation conditions, it is necessary to reevaluate physical and chemical properties, nutrient supplying state and yielding capacity of the main crops in the Banat area.

Keywords: sol, pretabilitate, Campia Banatului, clasa fertilitate, nota bonitare



Poluarea si depoluarea solurilor din zona Copsa Mica

M. Dumitru

Institutul National de Cercetare, Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului


Pollution and depollution of soils from Copsa Mica area



Within Romania heavy metal pollution affects ca. 900 thousand ha located mainly around the metallurgic plants. The largest areas are met at: Copsa Mica, Zlatna, Baia Mare, Bucuresti, Valea Calugareasca, Moldova Noua, etc; 14 hot spots were identified.

The research carried out within the National Monitoring System, level 1, 16x16 km grid (934 sampling points), revealed that the maximum allowable limit was surpassed in 7 points for Cu, 5 points for Pb, 20 points for Zn, 1 point for Cd, 4 points for Co, 93 points for Ni, 1 point for Mn, 132 points for Cr, 28 points for SO42-, and 10 points for F (Dumitru 2002).

A part of these metals is of geogenic nature and strongly related to the fine texture (heavy clay and clayey) and organic matter content of the soil. Some of the pollutant elements that overcome the maximum allowable limit originate from industrial pollution (non ferrous metallurgic industry, chemical industry) and agriculture (excessive fertilization and pesticides, Dumitru et. al., 2000)

Keywords: pollution, depollution, soil, Copsa Mica


Gradul de persistenta al leguminoaselor perene in diferite conditii de valorificare si rolul acestora in protectia si ameliorarea solului

Irina Tarau1, I. Borza2, D. Tarau2

1OSPA Timisoara, 2USAMVB Timisoara


The enduring capacity of the perennial legumes in different condition of capitalization and their role in protection and improvement of soil



Until present day the meadow, was regarded almost exclusively as an economical resource of producing fodder that gives a high yield through chemical fertilization with N, P, K. Nowadays the attention is focused on conserving and rebuilding the bio-diversity and decreasing the level of applying fertilizers mainly of those with nitrogen and replacing them with other resources that help at nitrogen symbiotic fixing by perennial legumes.

The higher capitalization of temporary meadows, the orientation in a favourable way of the main processes generated by the complexity of the relations between the grasses agrosystem components and their interdependence with the factors of the abiotic environment make up a major preoccupation in the current stage.

The problems approached in the present paper refers to the evolution of floral composition within the background of researches regarding “The culture technology establishment of the new legumes and grasses perennial varieties” depending on the interaction between the way to use mineral doses with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and the evolution of the main physical and hydrophysical soil characteristics.

The results obtained during 1990-1994 on a moderately gleyied eutric cambisol (eutricambosol batigleic) from the Bega-Timis interfluve highlights the necessity for a larger use of this mixture as it is more secure and assures a higher quality of the harvest and also because it has a positive impact in soil fertility improvement.

Keywords: biodiversity, environment, soil, fertility, capitalization


Ameliorarea unor soluri poluate cu apa sarata de la exploatarile petroliere din judetul Arges

Ion Creanga

OSPA Arges

Improvement of some soils polluted with salty waters in oil fields from Arges county



The pollution with oil residues, oil+salty water, and %r salty water from geological deposits creates economics damages through diminishing of the agroproductive capacity of the soils and the contamination of the surface and ground waters. On the polluted surfaces with salty water, frequently without vegetation are taking place processes of deterioration of the slopes, and development of surfaces without vegetation with the surfaces on which the vegetation is still normal, is creating a sadderting aspect, which modifies the natural landscape.

In all cases it is urgently required the setting up the polluted surfaces, the nature of the pollution (petroleum, salty water from deposit, petroleum+salty water), how deep was pollution going, the percentage of diminishing of the harvests as well as sorne measures of stopping the phenomenon, together with measures of remaking the agroproductive capacity of the polluted land.

Keywords: oil residue, pollution with oil residue, pollution with salty water, pollution with oil+salty water.


Probleme specifice poluarii cu metale grele in zona Baia Mare

Iancu Viorica1, Coman Mirela2

1OSPA Maramures, 2Univ. de Nord Baia Mare


Specific problems of heavy metals pollution in Baia Mare Area



This paper presents the results of research carried out by ICPA Bucharest and OSPA Maramures in Baia Mare area. The main problems presented there being pollution with heavy metals, permanent and previous overcoming of maximum allowable limits of Pb and Cd.

Keywords: heavy metals, pollution, monitoring environment state of art report


Reciclarea in agricultura a slamului petrolier

  1. Insusiri fizice, chimice si biologice


R. Lacatusu1, Beatrice Kovacsovics1, R. Lazar1

Nineta Rizea1, Mihaela Lungu1, Carolina Constantin1

Gabi-Mirela Matei1, S. Matei1, C. Vintila1, V. Iordache2

1Institutul National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului, Bucuresti

2SNP Petrom, BOSS Campina


Recirculating oil sludge on agricultural land


  1. Physical, chemical and biological properties

This paper presents the physical, chemical and biological characterisation of the waste resulted from oil sludge processing installations placed in five oil extraction or processing areas, namely: Ticleni, Brazi, Moinesti, Suplacu de Barcau and Videle.

The samples of such materials brought to the laboratory present a 3-43% humidity, light reddish to dark reddish colours, with blackish tints, and a loamy-loamy-sandy texture. Their reaction is slightly-moderate alkaline, predominant slightly alkaline. The organic carbon content is relatively high, and the mineral nitrogen forms (N-NO3 and N-NH4) is close to these chemical compounds normal contents in soils. The content of total and mobile phosphorus and potassium forms is medium to high, and the total sulphur content is very high.

The total exchange capacity is low, about 10me/100 g most of it represented by the Ca and Mg sum.

Total soluble salts content ranges from 100 to 2000 mg/100 g soil. Their composition is heterogenous, NaCl, CaSO4, Na2SO4, NaNO3, Mg(NO3)2 are predominant.

Heavy metals content is slightly higher than their normal soil content, but they don’t represent a hazard for the agricultural recirculation of the studied materials.

The total oil hydrocarbons ranges from 7 to 14%, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are predominant.

The bacterial and fungus micro-flora composition is diverse, and some of the species have the property of degrading hydrocarbons.


Influenta amendamentelor organice si minerale asupra degradarii pesticidelor

A. Simion, A. Lazureanu, G. Carciu, D. Manea

USAMVB Timisoara


Influence of the mineral and organic amendaments on the degradation of pesticides



This study aims at analysing the influence of carbon and exogenous nitrogen supply on atrasine evolution on two soils (the chernozem in Timisoara and the brown-red soil in Citeaux-France). Results confirm the co-metabolic character of natural micro-flora degrading the atrasine in the soil in Timisoara: very weak efficiency in metabolising triasinic nucleus and high efficiency in degrading triasine ethyl. Exogenous supply of micro-organisms capable of degrading atrasine come either from a soil adapted to an accelerated degradation of atrasine or using a pure bacterial line results, a hear after this inoculation, soil adaptation to the accelerated degradation of atrasine. In this non-adapted soil the carbon supply increases the mineralising capacity of the cycle and of atrasine ethyl. This supply is more efficient particularly on the mineralising of the triasinic cycle when done 15 days before treating the soil with atrasine. This effect is manifest also in the soil at Citeaux-France, but more feebly. Treating the soil with nitrogen alone or combined with a carbon layer results in a considerable diminuation of the mineralisation of the triasinic cycle on both soils.

Keywords: atrazine, degradation, microorganisms, mineralising kinetics


Modificari ale insusirilor solurilor sub actiunea poluarii antropice in judetul Gorj

Sarbu Lucica, Popescu Dorel, Calinoiu Ion, Craioveanu Gheorghe,

Carigoiu Violeta, Stanciu Simona, Negrea Constantin



Changes of soil properties under influence of anthropically induced pollution in Gorj county



The research object of the present paper concerns the anthropic soil pollution in Gorj county.

After presenting the main pollution sources and the affected areas, we are concerned with the changes produced in the soil depending on to the main pollution types: physical and chemical pollution.

As regard the physical pollution we emphasize that due to the open mining activities, the natural environment suffered some radical changes; the soils as natural entities disappeared and their place has been taken by geological deposits, having quite different physical and chemical attributes.

Regarding the chemical pollution we would like to stress out that the oil and salt water produces changes in the chemical properties of soil, leading to negative effects on their capacity of production.

The thermoelectric power plant dust pollution is obvious, but it didn’t cause change as those mentioned.

The cement dust pollution causes an increase in the quantity of CaCO3 existing in soils and thus an increase of their reaction.

About the heavy metal pollution we noticed increases over the normal limits, except for Zn and Ni which are above the maximum allowed limits.



2006 vol. XL

Cel de-al XVIII-lea congres mondial de stiinta solului (18th WCSS) cu tema “Frontierele stiintei solului – in epoca tehnologiei si informatiei” – Filadelfia, SUA, 9-15 iulie 2006


Addressing phosphorus related problems in farm practice

E. Bomans1, K. Fransen1, A. Gobin1, J. Mertens1, P. Michiels2

H. Vandendriessche1, N. Vogels1

1Soil Service of Belgium

2Spatial Applications Division Leuven



In 2005, on behalf of the European Commission, the Soil Service of Belgium, in collaboration with the Spatial Applications Division Leuven (SADL) of the Catholic University of Leuven, prepared a study on phosphorus related problems in the EU farming sector. The focus of this study is on the role and use of phosphorus in the agricultural sector of the current 25 European Member States, its actual and potential risk on the environment, on phosphorus legislation and on legal and practical measures that are or can be taken to reduce the losses of P from agricultural activities to the aquatic environment.

The phosphorus pressure on the agricultural land has been assessed at the regional scale (NUT II and NUT III) by means of the surface balance method, which calculates surpluses on the basis of inflow and outflow pathways. The inputs considered were mineral P-fertilisers and livestock manure; the outputs were crop production, including pasture, all for the year 2003. The results calculated per NUTS II/III region vary from -20kg P/ha of farmland (deficit) to just over 50 kg P/ha (surplus) but most regions fall within the range of -5 to +20kg/ha. High P-surplus levels are most often, but not always, linked to high livestock density.

Pedotransfer-rules using the Soil Geographic Database of Europe (SGDBE) were used to define areas at potential risk to P-surplus, i.e. land with a low sorption capacity, high erosion rates and increased risk of accelerated drainage. Because of the unclear effects of the factor drainage and the lack of reliable data for the EU 25, efforts were focused on sorption capacity and erosion risk. Limited sorption capacity is typical of the dominant soils of northern countries. Erosion risk appears to be the major driving force to P-loss in the southern member states. The resulting phosphorus sensitivity map was subjected to frequent analyses at European, Member State and NUTS II/III level. The results of the surface balance model were confronted with the proportion of vulnerable soils in order to indicate areas at risk of encountering potential phosphorus excess.

The document further analyses in extensor the steps already taken by the member states in compliance with the Water Framework Directive (including the Nitrate Directive), the Midterm Review of the Common Agricultural Policy and other EU legislations to monitor and combat P-related problems, in particular those affecting the quality of surface water and groundwater. Legislation regarding the application of fertilisers exists in most member states, most often as a means to comply with the Good Agricultural Practices as outlined in the Nitrates Directive, with the Codes of usual Good Farming Practices or with the Cross-Reference Requirements (GAEC Practices). However, only a few member states have put in place specific measures to control P-excess. These instruments can be of a legal, mandatory nature or can take the form of financial incentives.

An assessment was made of the financial and technical effectiveness of manure treatment and manure export, currently proposed as a means of reducing the nutrient surplus in areas with particularly high livestock density. The role of systematic soil testing for a better nutrient management was also highlighted.

Three European regions with known or expected problems of phosphorus surplus were studied and compared in detail: Flanders (Belgium), the Brittany region of France and the Po-valley of Italy.

The last chapter contains a series of recommendations on measures to be taken by authorities at European, national or local level, as well as by farmers level to tackle the P-problem and to reduce the P-surplus at regional level or at farm level.

Keywords: phosphorus, manure, farm practice


Water balancing-bioclimatic method as a functional approach to precise irrigation

B. Pejic1, B. Gajic2

1Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia

2Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade, Serbia



To overcome difficulties in irrigation scheduling, an easy, simple, reliable and practicable approach has been developed. It is called the bioclimatic method. Based on local information (soil, climate and crop parameters), hydrophythermic coefficients are calculated for different crops. The method has been successfully applied in the Vojvodina Province. The method can be used in any region but it requires the calculation of the hydrophythermic coefficients as the scope of its application is limited to a particular region.

Keywords: bioclimatic method, hydrophythermic coefficients, precise irrigation


Characterization and management of chernozem used for potato production


Livija Maksimovic, P. Sekulic, Jovica Vasin

Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia



Chernozem is a soil with ideal physical and chemical properties for crop production. When it comes to potato production, however, it has several drawbacks. One of the characteristics of chernozem is that it is a climatogenic soil, i.e. a soil of semiarid climate. Such a climate is not optimal for potato growing, which requires a lot of precipitation, i.e. a humid climate. Also, the relief, being the third most important pedogenetic factor behind climate and the climate-dependent vegetation, makes chernozem a soil of flat terrains situated at low altitudes and thus precludes its use in the production of virus-free seed potatoes.

Potato produces high and stable yields when grown on soils with good natural fertility under favourable climatic conditions. Weather conditions in the Vojvodina Province are those of a continental climate with a mean annual air temperature of 11.00C and a mean annual air temperature during the growing season of 17.60C. The precipitation pattern is typically central European, with the most precipitation occurring in early summer (84.9 mm in June) and the least either in early spring (38.7 mm, March) or mid-fall (39.4 mm, October).

Still, even on the best of soils developed under natural conditions, there is always some limiting factor that will cause yield losses relative to the genetic potentials of a given crop species. For this reason, we analyzed and recommended measures for improving the soil properties of chernozem on which potato had been successfully grown for decades in the province of Vojvodina.

Keywords: chernozem, chemical properties, heavy metals, PAHs, microbial activity, radionuclivity


Technical and biological recultivation of soil damaged with oil drilling waste

P. Sekulic1, Ljiljana Nesic2, M. Belic2

Mira Pucarevic1, Jordana Ralev1

1Research Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia

2Faculty of Agriculture Novi Sad, Serbia



The subject of this study was the Crna Bara site used for the disposal of drilling fluid waste material from oil and natural gas wells in the northeastern part of the Banat region. Soil analyses were used to determine the properties of the dump site soil and the surrounding native soil, so as to obtain a realistic picture of the type, level and extent of soil damage at dump sites. This information was then used as the basis of a proposal for the technical and biological recultivation of the site for the purposes of soil management and soil and environmental protection.

Keywords: dump site, deposol, recultivation


Fertilitatea solului – o notiune perimata?

Niculina Gheorghita

Universitatea de Stiinte Agronomice si Medicina Veterina Bucuresti


Soil fertility – an obsolete notion?



The soil fertility concept has been correctly understood until the using of modern means of increasing of agricultural yield. Since that moment it was made confusion between soil fertility and productivity. These two notions can not be used with the same meaning. The soil fertility belongs of the soil life while soil productivity is an economic concept and is the result of interactions among soil fertility, applied technology, climate conditions and the cultivated plant. So, soil productivity can not reflect in an objective way the soil fertility level. Because of this confusion one drew the conclusion that soil fertility is not a feature which follows correctly the soil evolution under the anthropic influences. According to that, many research workers have been trying to replace the soil fertility notion with soil quality. In our opinion, the soil quality notion must encompass both soil productivity and fertility.

Keywords: soil fertility, soil productivity, soil quality, biological indicators


Rehabilitation of soils polluted with petroleum


M. Dumitru, Anca-Rovena Voiculescu

National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science, Agrochemistry and Environment, Bucharest



Romania, as a country producing oil and with a tradition in its processing, unfortunately, is affected by some accidental, undesired phenomena that lead to the environmental pollution with oil, petroleum products and residues resulted from the oil processing.

Approximately 50000 ha agricultural and forestlands are polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons and brine, within the areas of petroleum extraction, transportation and processing in Romania.

These pollution phenomena induces important changes at the levels of the soil organisms, especially microorganisms, leading to the extinction of a large number of species and determining the decrease of the most important property of soil, fertility.

By avoiding the pollution effects and rebuilding the initial state of ecosystems, the first stage of the sustainable development concept is applied that, in the soil science field represent the optimisation of soil function that generate the fertility.

In this view, an experiment for rehabilitation of a petroleum-polluted soil was carried out using the bioremediation in situ.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons, biodegradation, manure, bacteria inoculation


Reciclarea in agricultura a slamului petrolier

  1. Efectul materialului solid rezultat de la instalatia de procesare a slamului petrolier asupra cresterii plantelor de porumb


R. Lacatusu1, Beatrice Kovacsovics1, R. Lazar1

Nineta Rizea1, Gabi-Mirela Matei1, S. Matei1, Mihaela Lungu1,

Carolina Constantin1, C. Vintila2, V. Iordache2, Carmen Burtea3

1Institutul National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului, Bucuresti

2SNP Petrom, BOSS Campina

3Universitatea “Dunarea de Jos” Galati, Facultatea de Inginerie Braila


Recirculating oil sludge on agricultural land


  1. The effect of the solid material resulted from oil sludge processing installations on maize plant growth



Researches were carried out to demonstrate, through experiments with plants, if the materials resulting from oil sludge processing can constitute a source of nutritional elements for crops. This paper presents the first results.

The administration of the material from Suplacu de Barcau and Ticleni, in 10-40t/ha doses, on a soil material, without fertilization determines a growing tendency of the height and mass of maize plants for the first dose, and a depletion of the two parameters for the following doses (20 and 40t/ha). The administration of the same materials accompanied by fertilization determines a significant growth of the mass and height of maize plants. Soil pH increases with up to 0.71 pH units and total soluble salts content up to a maximum value of 148mg/100 g soil. The soluble salts content increase was especially due to calcium and magnesium sulphates content increase.

The administration of phosphogypsum, sawdust, and inocul had no significant effect on maize plants growth.

Oil hydrocarbons content in the mixture of soil and solid material proceeded from oil sludge processing installations was below 1%, with lower values in the fertilized variant as compared to the un-fertilized one.

The maximum micro-biologic activity was registered in the inoculated variants.



Primul program national de activitate pedologica in Romania

Stelian Carstea


First national soil science program in Romania



Some significant information on the activity of first Commission for Research of the Romanian Soils are presented. This commission was one of the 15 commissions in the Romanian Academy’s National Research Council set up on January 19, 1945, as a result of a long debate sustained by an increasing group of the best Romanian scientists which, since 1932, have striven to get such a national scientific institution.

The Commission for Research of the Romanian Soils had as main tasks (1) the problem of soil erosion and soil conservation methods (referred herein) according to the USA methodology, and (2) the problem of potable water supply for rural communities.

As concerns the first problem, by its national interinstitutional approaching system (including more than 30 specialists), organized in 7 field working teams), as well as by its purposes, perspectives and obtained results, this action could be really considered as the First National Soil Science Program in Romania. But, unfortunately, the commission’s activity lasted, in fact, only one year, 1946, because, since 1948, al the research and education institutions have been radically restructured and reformed according to the Soviet Union’s model which also deeply influenced the soil science activity with unforeseeable and undesirable consequences.

Keywords: soil science, soil erosion, soil conservation



Carbon sequestration for degraded land

A. R. Mermut

University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon Sask. S7N 5A8, Canada



Many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. Carbon sequestration is a radical in the technological context and provides mean to tackle land degradation. Despite vast current knowledge on carbon dynamics, little work is done to translate this knowledge into practice. The research so far shows multiple agricultural and environmental benefits.

The total amount of carbon stored in terrestrial environment is about 2000 ± 500 Pg and about 75% of this occurs in the soil. The potential of carbon sequestration appears to be large (5-10 Pg/year) in comparison to current rate (2Pg/year). In addition to restoration of degraded ecosystems, there are number of benefits for increased soil quality and crop production.


Soil degradation processes and extreme soil moisture regime as environmental problems in the Carpathian basin

Gh. Varallyay

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry (RISSAC)

of the Hungarian Academy of Science Budapest



The most important elements of sustainable development in the Carpathian Basin are the rational use and conservation of soil resources and ecosystems (the geological strata-soil-water-biota-plant-near surface atmosphere continuum), maintaining their favourable “quality” and desirable multifunctionality.

The natural conditions (climate, water, soil and biological resources) of the Carpathian Basin are generally favourable for rainfed biomass production. These conditions, however, show extremely high, hardly predictable spatial and temporal variability, often extremes, and sensitively react to various natural or human-induced stresses. The main ecological constraints are: 1. Soil degradation processes. 2. Extreme moisture regime: simultaneous hazard of flood, waterlogging, overmoistening and drought sensitivity. 3. Unfavourable changes in the biogeochemical cycles of elements, especially of plant nutrients and environmental pollutants.

In the last years the development of “in situ” and laboratory analytics, remote sensing, informatics, computer technology, GIS/GPS applications, etc. has given opportunity for the organization of all available information into a well-structured up-to-date soil database. On this basis the “environmental sensitivity/susceptibility/vulnerability” of soils against these stresses were comprehensively analysed and indicated on thematical maps in various scale.

Because of these facts sustainable land use and site-specific soil management, yield stability, risk reduction, soil conservation and the prevention, elimination or moderation of extreme moisture situations (due to uneven spatial and time distribution of atmospheric precipitation, heterogeneous meso- and microrelief; highly variable soil cover; unfavourable physical and hydrophysical properties of some soils) have great significance and soil moisture control is of primary importance in the Carpathian Basin.

Keywords: soil degradation, extreme moisture regime, water-logging hazard, drought sensitivity, environmental vulnerability, soil database, hydrophysical properties of soils


Variabilitatea spatiala a unor caracteristici ale solurilor zonei codrilor (Republica Moldova)

A. Ursu, I. Marcov, Vera Crupenicov

Institutul de Ecologie si Geografie al Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova, Chisinau


Spatial variation of some characteristics of soils from Codri Area (Moldavian Republic)



Unlike of morphological parameters of genetic horizons and of depth of profile of soil, the spatial variation of brown and grey soils in Codri is expressed rather lowly. Tilled soils are very low contents of humus and acidity and their spatial variation is somewhat higher than under forest soils. Considerable variation presents the depth of occurrence and quantity of carbonates.

Keywords: the spatial variation, brown soil, grey soil, humus


Continutul si distributia microelementelor in solurile cenusii in dependenta de utilizare

Tamara Leah

Institutul de Pedologie si Agrochimie

“Nicolae Dimo” Chisinau (Republica Moldova)

Content and distribution of microelements in grey soils in dependence of utilization



The paper includes the data concerning the content of total and mobile forms of Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, Ni in grey soils from Republic of Moldavia under agricultural utilization. Arable, wine growing plantation, forest, grass fallow – 20 years. The increase of the total content of Cu was determined in top soil horizon of the vine soil – 135 mg/kg or ppm. This quantity of Cu to outrun the average content in 5 times bigger. A high content of Cu (78 ppm) was storage in grasses horizon of grass fallow soil. This soil was utilized 7 years under the grape vine, than as erosion results it was abandoned. In arable soil the content of Cu was optimal in all horizons. The total Cu was correlated with mobile form. The high concentration of Cu was accumulated in mater organic horizons. The distribution of Zn in soils was depended of its utilization and soil genesis. As a result, Zn content varies between 40 and 86 ppm in main horizons of soil. The high values of the mobile Zn were in soil utilization under grape vine (28 ppm). The content of total Mn varied from 400 pm in the vine soil to 1610 in the forest soil. The total Mn do not correlated with the mobile form. The content of total and mobile Co was low than average quantity. The content of Ni was increased from 28 ppm in the forest soil to 54 ppm in the arable soil. The content and distribution of microelements was depended of agricultural utilization, humus and carbonates contents.

Keywords: cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc


Efectul poluarii asupra unor insusiri chimice si mineralogice ale unui districambosol din zona Zlatna

Alexandrina Manea, C.Craciun

Institutul National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului, ICPA-Bucuresti


The effect of pollution on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of a dystric cambisol from Zlatna zone



The paper is a comparative study (chemical and mineralogical) of two Dystric Cambisols from Zlatna zone, affected by a different degree of pollution.

From the chemical point of view, the effect of the industrial pollution is the acidification and depletion of bases, reflected by the decrease of values of indices which express soil reaction (pH) and soil exchange properties, especially in the surface horizon.

From the mineralogical point of view the acidification affects micaceous minerals and probably feldspars.

As result of acidification and depletion of bases, the content of kaolinite increases achieving a double content in the surface horizon of the heavy polluted soil.

Keywords: soil pollution, soil clay minerals


Distributia cantitativa si calitativa a bacteriilor heterotrofe in solurile salinizate si ameliorate


Gabriela Mihalache1, Nineta Rizea1, M. Mihalache2

1Institutul National de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului, Bucuresti

2Agentia Nationala de Consultanta Agricola


Quantitative and qualitative distribution of heterotrophic bacteria in salinizated and ameliorated soils



This paper presents the latest results concerning quantitative and qualitative distribution of bacteria in salinizated and ameliorated soils samples from Maxineni-Corbu Nou, Braila county.

With regard to soil microbial population, quantitatively, it varied within a wide range, according with chemical and physical characteristics (salinization, degree, pH values, and other).

The bacterial species Pseudomonas lemmonieri and Azotobacter chroococcum may be considered as microbial indicators in the process of soil improvement.

Keywords: salinizated and ameliorated soils, heterotrophic bacteria, microbial indicators.


Consideratii despre spatiu sit imp in stiinta solului

N. Florea, A. Vrinceanu

Institutul de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului, Bucuresti


Considerations about space and time in soil science



Pedology, as science that deals with soil cover consisting of natural three-dimensional bodies that form dynamic systems at earth crust surface, has to deal unavoidably with space and time.

From philosophical point of view, the space as an objective and universal form of matter that expresses the order of co-existing objects and time as Universe dimension that orders the irreversible succession of events (phenomena), form together a quadric-dimensional continuum according to the theory of generalized relativity. According to the new relational thought about Universe as a network of relations in evolution, the space and time represent the background of all the phenomena that take place or happen in the world. In present one tries to elaborate a theory of quantum gravitation which should unify the quantum theory with generalized relativity theory, with notable implications concerning space and time concept.

In the soil science, the time was considered as pedogenetic factor or condition besides climate, vegetation, parent material and relief. The space did not and does not take into account by soil scientists; only in the last decennia some pedologists believe that also the space should be considered pedogenetic factor or state factor.

But the space and time do not intervene, do not modify the development of the soil forming process; they represent only the background of this process, and the existence form of the soil cover. Therefore, the space and time cannot be considered soil forming factors (or soil state factors), even if the different ages of some terrestrial surface induce modifications in soil cover, being an indirect cause of its variation in territory (determined by the different durations of the pedogenetic process).

The space appears as background of the soil systems that constitute a very thin three-dimensional layer that covers the Earth as a membrane (forming the pedosphere or the soil cover). The space is therefore present in our representation by pedological maps with spatial soil distribution. It is necessary to pay more attention to the horizontal relations among soil units in territory (pedogeographical assemblage) in order to clarify the link between space and soil cover.

The time has to be regarded as duration of soil forming process necessary for the materialization of the action of all the processes taking place in soil under pedogenetic factors influence, and which result in soil profile from incipient to developed stadia.

The notions of absolute and relative age, and the rate of soil evolution were discussed; these notions belong as matter a fact to the soil dynamics (dynamic pedology). The soil age varies – according to existing data – from hundreds to ten thousand years in temperate zone until some million years in equatorial zone. During this long time the natural conditions and soil genesis changed often (polygenetic soils). The time necessary to reach the quasiequilibrium with the environment is defined as “characteristic response time”.

The graphic representation of soil systems in a space-time background is a challenge for future.

Keywords: pedogenetic factor, space-time, background of soil cover


Despre prezenta solurilor cu lamele argilo-feruginoase in Campia Joasa a Crisului Negru


I. Munteanu

Institutul National de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului – Bucuresti


On presence of soils with clayey ferruginous lamellae within the Crisul Negru River Lowland



The paper dealt with the occurrence of lamellic Bt horizon within the coarse textural soils of the low-lying part of the Crisul Negru (Black Cris) river alluvial plain (western part of Romania). The investigated soils are represented by Lamellic Luvisols and Typical Luvisols developed on Pleistocen, non-carbonatic loamy sand and sandy loam deposits respectively. The average thickness of individual lamellae varies between 3.2 and 6.3 cm (maximum 19.2 cm0 and the total one between 44.5 and 81.6 cm within a measured distance of 116.0-154.7 cm. The average clay content of lamellae is of 15.1% against 11.9% of the interlamellar material. The free oxides content (mainly iron oxide) varies between 0.23-2.28% within lamellae against 0.16-1.70% within interlamellae. Because the interlamellae develop conjointly with lamellae one believe that they are E horizons (impoverished in clay and iron) rather than C horizons as they were considered in some literature sources.

As elsewhere, the triggering cause of lamellae formation seems to be lithological discontinuities of the parent material, which, simultaneously means a physical discontinuity in the water movement and colloids migration/accumulations possibilities, what is not clear is why the lamellae are mostly subparallel and sublinear (and some with convolutions) while the parent material has a specific cross-bedded structure.

Keywords: lamellae, lamellic Luvisols



Lucrarile celei de a XVIII-a Conferinte Nationale pentru Stiinta Solului, Cluj-Napoca, 20-26 august 2006


1Latvia University of Agriculture, Latvia





Soil is the natural body, finite and hardly renewable resource that is under pressure from many activities, mostly human induced. Our existence fully depends on soils’ ability to maintain their ecological functions. Awareness about the threats and damage to soil possibly came with some backwardness but still we should react adequately and immediately to solve the problems which might impair or even endanger our existence. As soils have no national boundaries and factors affecting them also cross any man-made borderlines, research for better understanding the processes that led to soil degradation, investigation of possible remediation techniques and evaluating policy impact and changes on soil resources should be performed collectively. Therefore soil research and information acquisition about Latvia soils need to be strongly coordinated within the world-wide soil information framework following the standards set up internationally. Current situation and future prospects are discussed focusing on EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection which is core activity currently in Europe.

Keywords: soil, soil information, acquisition methods, EU Thematic Strategy.




Khaled Al Joumaa

The 2nd Faculty of Agronomy, Aleppo University, Syria





In the Syrian desert there are tablelands and terraces sculptured in rock consisting especially of gypsum, chalkstones and marles. Also in the Euphrates Floodplain there are several fans and glacises consisting of gypsiferous water-deposited sediments transported from the neighbouring higher areas having gypsiferous rocks, and accumulated at contact between floodplain and these higher areas.

On these landforms and parent material, and in the arid climatic conditions, the Gypsisols (Gypsids) are developed.

Three categories of soils rich in Gypsum can be distinguished in Syria: soils with gypsum on the gypsum rocks and on the uplands (erosional landforms), soils with gypsum on the gypsiferous sediments and on the low lands (depositional landforms), and soils with gypsum accumulated from ground waters.

The gypsisols, rich in gypsum and lime, show a little development of pedogenetic processes. The soil profile consists of an ochric A horizon with bioaccumulation followed by an a gypsic horizon (Cy) with a slight accumulation of gypsum migrated from upper part; in some cases a petrogypsic horizon is formed.

Due to gypsum migration higher contents of CaCO3 are generally found in the upper horizon (“residual accumulation”). Commonly, in the presence of gypsum in soil, CaCO3 cannot be translocated due to its solubility decrease (in the presence of common Ca ion solved from gypsum).

The gypsols formed in gypsiferous sediments from floodplain are somewhat better developed because their long cultivation under irrigation conditions; also they are richer in nutrients and organic matter.

The gypsisols formed under influence of ground waters are generally more or less saline.

The main factors in the gypsisols formation are the gypsiferous parent materials, the arid climate, the reduced biomass production and the erosion processes; the topography influences very much the soil evolution.

One suggests the introduction of a Fluvenic subgroup in the frame of the great groups Haplogypsids and Petrogypsids and replacement of the gypsic and petrogypsic subgroups from Haplosalids with the salidic subgroups in the great groups of Haplogypsids and Petrogypsids.

The agriculture value of gypsisols is very low and limited to grazing unless they are irrigated as it is the case of gypsisols from Euphrates Floodplain. But the irrigation of these soils raises severe problems due to gypsum dissolving.

Keywords: gypsiferous soils, Syria




Dorin Tarau1, Erik Bomans2

1USAMVB Timisoara, Romania, 2Soil Service of Belgium


Being aware of lands ecological resources, natural conditions and particularities for different uses and crops is of great importance for the big and small producers.

In this paper we present the main aspects regarding the quality of the ecopedological conditions. Here there are briefly presented the physico-geographic conditions and the telluric-edaphic configuration of the area. Also, the structure of the main categories of agricultural activities in the physical geographical areas (mountains, hills and plateaus, high and low plains and meadows) and main soil types and associations are presented. Lands vocation for different use (arable, lawns, hay, orchard, vineyard) and their capacity or main cultivated crops (wheat, barley, maize, sunflower etc) are introduced.

The paper ends with highlighting the necessary measures for a lasting administration of ecopedological resources in the studied area.




C.Craciun, M. Eftene, Victoria Mocanu

Institutul National de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie,

Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului – ICPA Bucuresti





The paper is a comparative mineralogical study by X-ray diffraction of clay fraction below 2µm separated from surface horizon and parent material (C horizon) of a number of 61 chernozems from Romania.

The identified clay minerals in the clay fraction of these soils were illite, smectite and kaolinite.

The established direct relationships between illite, smectite and kaolinite contents from the parent material and from surface horizon pointed out the influence of the parent material on the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction from these soils and the role of mineralogical inheritance in the formation of clay fraction.

The smectite/illite ratio at the clay level indicates a decreasing trend in the surface horizon, in comparison with parent materials.

This decreasing trend could be due to some natural causes (bioaccumulation, weathering) and artificial causes (potassium fertilization).




Maria Gheorghe1, Nicolae Florea2

Daniela Raducu2, Gheorghe Petcu3

1USAMV Bucuresti, 2ICPA Bucuresti, 3INCDA-Fundulea





The physical and chemical properties of a Chernozem are influenced by the different variants of soil tillage. The analytical data show, on long term, the following: the trend of worsening of the physical soil properties with more perceptible difference between “annual tillage” and “disk harrow”; the annual “disk harrow” increases the structural hydrostability but leads to a deterioration of other properties of soil. The tillage combined with two years of “disk harrow” leads to a improving of the physical and chemical soil properties comparing with the “control” (tillage at 28 cm depth).

Keywords: soil tillage, soil properties, Chernozem, Romanian Danube Plain



Valentin Balaceanu, Daniela Raducu

Institutul National de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie,

Agrochimie si Protectia Mediului – ICPA, Bucuresti




The aluvio-proluvial acid black soils are distric soils, with a deep humic layer (and umbric epipedon) and are often gleyied. Their morfphological profile is Au-Bv-C-R or Au-C-R.

“Au” horizon is sometimes, semi-boggy, the Bv and C horizons have always umbric character, at least in their upper part, while in the lower part are sometimes gleyied. The R horizon is composed of gravel.

These soils originate, by drainage, in the old Umbric Gleysols. At present, their humus, previously an anmoor, develops into a Chernozem-like mull, and the soil tends to be a Phaeozem.

These soils are located in the extra- and intra-Carpathian piedmont plains, as well as on the recent terraces (Pleistocene-Holocene).

They were formed on the proluviale materials resulted from acid or intermediate rocks, under the influence of the oxygenated groundwater, weakly mineralized, in a percolative moisture regime with a mobile groundwater.

At the present stage of their evolution, these soils are drained, the groundwater being at 1,5-3m depth.

In the Romanian classifications, these soils are considered as umbrisols, acid black soil type, respectively (SRCS, 1980) or Nigrosol (SRTS, 2003). In the international classifications, they belong, partially to Fluvi-Humic Umbrisoils (WRB-SR, 1998) or Fluvaqueptic Humic Distrudept (USD-ST, 1999).



George Citu1, Radu Lacatusu2, Stefania Chiriac3, Mihaela Lungu3

1AMEC Earth and Environment UK Ltd.

2National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science,

Agrochemistry and Environment Protection (RISSA) Bucharest

3AGRARO SRL Bucharest


The historical mining area of Rosia Montana is located in the western part of Romania in a region known as the Golden Quadrilateral which has been an important gold producing region in Europe for over 2,000 years. The existing mine, the RosiaMin operation, is a small-scale and degraded open pit mine. The environmental components of soil and water were polluted with heavy metals and acidification due to recent and historical mining activity, for example, from waste rock dumps due to mine processing operations.

The soil research programs on Rosia Montana showed that the soil might be affected by acidification and polluted with heavy metals due to chemical elements existing in the waste rock and ore. Chemical analysis indicated that the soil cover in the region is mainly acid which have low to medium buffer capacity to acidification input. The presence of the waste rock dumps on the existing mine site resulted in acidification of the area and mobilization of the heavy metals in soil solution. The process is more visible on the waste rock dumps uncovered by vegetation. The net neutralization potential shows clearly the beneficial influence of the vegetation to the environment components.

Analytical data of the heavy metal loads from undisturbed soil indicates concentration situated into the pedo-geochemical background or in the Alert Threshold limits.

Some remediation methods of soil polluted with heavy metals are presented.

Keywords: mining, pollution, heavy metals, soil remediation



-         progrese si preocupari -

Stelian Carstea

Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice

« Gheorghe Ionescu Sisesti », Bucuresti, Romania


- progress and concerns -


The paper briefly emphasizes the significant development, diversification, progress, concerns and various proposals on soil quality monitoring as the result of the several papers presented at the international scientific Symposium 23 “Soil monitoring”, in the framework of the EUROSOIL – 2004, September 4th to 12th, 2004, in Freiburg, Germany.

While recently, after the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Stockholm, 1972), the governments understood, however, to pay an increasing attention to soil monitoring quality. So, in 1975, the Romanian Government issued a particular Act setting up the National Environmental Quality Monitoring System as a partner of the Global Environmental Monitoring System, the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (ICPA) being responsible for the National Soil Quality Monitoring System. In 1992, this system was substantially restructured and improved aiming at the integration of both agricultural and forestry soils, being still under a continuous process of improvement.

In the context of these new particular concerns issued on the occasion of the UN Conference on Environment and Development, in 1973, a special research laboratory on soil pollution control was set up within the ICPA. Besides the research papers prepared and published in this field, a particular book (Rauta and Carstea, 1983) was published on soil pollution control (soil quality monitoring included), which later was integrally translated into Russian, in Moscow (Rauta and Carstea, 1986). Among the other main research results obtained in this field, the publication of a bilingual (Romanian and English) Atlas on soil quality monitoring system in Romania (ICPA/FAO), as a result of a Romanian/FAO joint project, can also be mentioned. As it was to be expected, the soil monitoring systems got more and more developed and largely diversified all over the world. To illustrate these issues, several soil quality monitoring aspects, in some European countries, emphasizing also the common concerns of the authors regarding the preparation of a European Soil Quality Monitoring Directive, are presented.

Keywords: soil, soil quality monitoring, contamination sites, soil pollution control



Beata Houskova1 & Luca Montanarella1

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for

Environment & Sustainability, 21020 Ispra (VA) Italy


Soil protection has never ranked high among the priorities for environmental protection in Europe. Soils are commonly not well known by the European citizens, particularly since only a small fraction of the European population is currently living in rural areas and having a direct contact with soils.

The majority of the urban population in Europe has only little understanding for the features and functions of soils. The most common perception is that soils are good dumping sites for all kinds of wastes and that soil can be quite useful as surfaces for building houses and infrastructure.

Having more data and information about soils in Europe can help in improving this situation. The establishment of a European Soil Data Centre by the European Commission in support of the new EU thematic strategy for soil protection can certainly contribute to raising awareness in the general public of the importance of soil protection.

Keywords: soil protection, EU thematic strategy, European soil data center




1Institute of Applied Geosciences,

University of Technology, Graz, Austria


This paper will focus on the present state and future development of soil research.

While world population is growing exponentially, the under agriculture is – at its best – remaining constant or may even be dwindling, thus constituting a diminishing resource.

Following a brief outline of the various soil functions and the areas that might still be brought under cultivation, questions regarding the world’s nutrition will be treated under the aspect of pedology.

Present and future priorities include the comprehensive protection of soil, intensified pedological research and the translation of the results into agricultural practice. The World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) is an ideal instrument serving as a basis for international understanding in this field.

The signals of future developments can no longer be overlooked: what is the future impact of the changing climate on soil and its fertility? How will the soils themselves change, as object of research regarding such questions. Finally, how can a peaceful solution be found to the need for clean sprinkler-irrigation water?

We possess a wide and well-founded specialist basis on which to build, but we can answer the society’s future questions with regard to pedology only by coordinated efforts and on the basis of international understanding and cooperation.

Keywords: soil resources, emissions of CO2 in Austria, impact of climatic change on soils



Dr. N. Kolev

Nicola Poushkarov, Institute of Soil Science, Sofia, Bulgaria


Land use change in Bulgaria after privatization has been recognized by decision makers as a primary concern to ensure sustainable development and political stability.

The Institute of Soil Science, as a main soil survey organization in Bulgaria was initiated in response to the perceived need to expand agricultural output at least to the point of self sufficiency.

Bulgaria had not completed its detailed national soil mapping program by the end of the 1980s, including soil map at scale 1:10 000 for all territory.

The purpose of the paper is to show present status of soil survey for evalution of degradation and soil monitoring of Bulgaria and steps of land consolidation as a necessary reform of Bulgarian agriculture.

Continuous assessment of the soil properties, land degradation status and soil vulnerability and collection of soil and terrain data, are being carried out by the Institute of Soil Science “Nikola Poushkarov”, Sofia. The information about the soil resources is now summarized, estimated and systematized together by the Institute of Soil Science and the Executive Agency “National Soil Survey Service” to build up a Soil Geographic Information System (SGIS).

Erosion, decline of organic matter and soil contamination have been recognized as the most widespread soil degradation threats, which limit severely the multi-functionality of this non-renewable natural resource.

With information about the landscape and climate elements, nutrient contents and different anthropogenic impacts, the SGIS makes possible predictions of land degradation risks and planning measures for soil conservation and land reclamation and can help decisions for land consolidation.

From the beginning of 2006 the Institute of Soil Science has been participating in a European Project entitled “Environmental Assessment of Soils for Monitoring”, which will create common criteria and indicators for soil assessment and grid networks for the monitoring.

Keywords: land management, soil degradation, soil monitoring.



Khaled Al Joumaa

The 2nd Faculty of Agronomy, Aleppo University, Syria



Based on the interpretation of data concerning the gypsiferous soils from Euphrates Floodplain and Syrian Tableland it is presented in this paper a taxonomy of these soils, as well as a land classification for irrigation.

For this purpose the diagnostic gypsic horizon, petrogypsic horizon and subgypsic horizon were defined. The gypsic horizon is defined as a non-cemented horizion having at least 15 cm thickness and 15% or more gypsum content. The petrogypsic horizon is a cemented horizon having at least 10 cm thickness and more than 50% gypsum; the dry fragments of the horizon do not slake in water and cannot be penetrated by roots. The subgypsic horizon is a non-cemented horizon with 0.5-15% of gypsum and a minimum thickness of 15cm.

At high level of the classification (taxonomy) the gypsisol unit (type or reference group) and its subdivisions were distinguished. The gypsisol is defined as soil having gypsic horizon beginning from the first 50 cm or petrogypsic horizon beginning from the first 100 cm. the following subunits can be met:

-         haplic gypsisols, only with gypsic horizon;

-         petric gypsisols, having petrogypsic horizon;

-         luvic gypsisols, gypsisols having an argic horizon;

-         calcic gypsisols, gypsisols with calcic horizon situated below gypsic or petrogypsic horizon;

-         salinic gypsisols, gypsisols with salic horizon within the first 100 cm;

-         sodic gypsisols, gypsisols with salinized horizon or high exchangeable natrium percentage within the first 100 cm;

-         litic gypsisols, gypsisols having hard rock (generally gypsum-stone) between 20 and 50 cm from the surface.

At low level of the classification several subdivisions can be distinguished depending on the degree of the gypsum accumulation evaluated taking into account both the gypsum percentage and depth of the gypsum layer (table 2, 3 and 4).

At the end a land classification for irrigated agriculture (table 5) of the territories with gypsiferous soils is presented; five classes of different pretability for irrigation were discerned taking into account the content and depth of the layers with gypsum, the form of the gypsum, the presence of the petrogypsic horizon. Of course, other restrictive factors can be associated.

Keywords: gypsiferous soil, taxonomy, irrigation pretability




Gheorghe Ianos1, Ioan Gogoasa2

1West University of Timisoara

2Agricultural and Veterinary Medicine University of Timisoara


Because of some tectonic, gliptogenetic and sedimentogenetic junctures, the soils of the south-western part of Romania are characterized by the increased loads of heavy metals. The contents increased from two to five times than the other similar zones from the country were pointed out for cadmium, lead, chrome and cobalt. Nevertheless, until now, there have not been identified yet the stated polluted areas in this part of Romania. This also appears because of the lack of some major industrial pollutants, of the favourable conditions of the stockpile and stopping of chemical elements and of the reduced vulnerability of soils.

The majority of the chemical elements (heavy metals – total forms) which are present in hill and plain soils come from the mountain metalogenic areas. The specific conditions of weathering, those of translocation, mobilisation and stockpile of chemical elements in the colloid complex did not have the necessary conditions to realise large accumulations of heavy metals – mobile forms, corresponding to total forms. The low values of the coefficients of mobility of heavy metals, form the total forms, maintain the same characteristic even in the situation of the translocation of these chemical elements from the soil solution to plants.

Even though some areas suffered some additions of heavy metals proceeded from combustion products of fossil fuels, the specific features of soils that express their vulnerability situation do not favour the processes of mobilisation and translocation towards the plants of the increased quantity of chemical elements.

In all cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in the analysed vegetables in two representative areas do not pass the admission limits. The agricultural lands examined can be recommended for the cultivation of horticole products as well as their ecological processing.

Keywords: pollution, heavy metals, vegetables, Romania



D. Tarau1, I. Borza1, Irina Tarau2, N. Baghina1, V. Ciupa3

1USAMVB Timisoara

2OSPA Timisoara

3Primaria Timisoara



The theme of this research paper regards the problem of the scientific program initiated by Timisoara Town House in 1997 in collaboration with OSPA Timisoara and USAMVB Timisoara referring to “Soils’ inventory and soils’ erosion degree evaluation” as a component of the Timisoara area Development Strategic Concept.

The physico-geographic characteristics of the studied area are presented, also the edaphic cover components, some restrictive characteristics of the environment and those referring to land suitability for different uses.

The studied area has a surface of 49 457 ha including seven cadastral administrative territories: Timisoara (13,003.87 ha), Dumbravita (1,898.46 ha), Ghiroda (3,263.68 ha), Giroc (5,459.86 ha), Mosnita Noua (6,649.49 ha), Sacalaz (11,665.72 ha), Sanmihaiul Roman (7,525.85 ha).

The geographic position of the area, its natural conditions (relief, lithology, hydrology, climate and vegetation), specific to a divagation, subsidence and accumulation area, but also the human interventions started with the first land workings, had a great impact on city’s development (the city was attested in official documents around 800 years ago) from its beginning as a fortress (Castrum Temesiense 1212) to its actual stage of Timisoara city, the residence of Timis county.

The specific evolution of this urbe as a radial concentric structure and also the long term development of its future urban arrangements require that we reconsider the natural and urban environment taking into account all their aspects: economical, social, ecological and esthetical.

Nowadays, the evolution of a society cannot be conceived without the existence of a strategy based on new concepts that are built on the knowledge of natural and anthropic resources and also on defining those resources from an ecological point of view.

Keywords: problems, preservation, resources, peri-urban area.



S. Matei1, Gabi-Mirela Matei1, Adina Mocanu1

1National Research-Development Institute for Soil Science,

Agrochemistry and Environment Protection, Bucharest, Romania



The research carried out in the field of diesel oil degradation is motivated by the necessity to reclaim soils accidentally polluted with hydrocarbons by means of rapid, economically efficient and easy to apply technologies.

The chromic luvisol from Peris was experimentally polluted with 3% oil concentration.

In order to reclaim the soil, mineral fertilizers, bacterial inoculum in separated and combined treatments were administrated.

The separation of diesel oil classes of hydrocarbons was done by solid-liquid column chromatography and selective desorption followed by gravimetric analyses.

The modifications induced to the chemical links of the molecules specific to each class of hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and resin) in the composition of Diesel oil from soil were monitored by IR spectroscopy for every variant at 45 and 95 days after the remedial treatment admistration.

The results of analyses are presented in dynamics.

The pathways of hydrocarbon degradation differ as a function of the nature of reclaiming treatment applied to polluted soil.

The best results concerning diesel oil hydrocarbons degradation recorded in the treatment were the mineral fertilizers combined with bacterial inoculum.

Keywords: diesel oil, remediation, inoculum, hydrocarbons